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CRJ-100 Chap. 3

Thomas Turner's CRJ-100 Chapter 3 Vocabulary.


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Parental Efficacy
Parenting that is supportive, effective, and noncoercive.
Life Course
The course of social and developmental changes through which an individual passes as he or she travels from birth through childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and finally old age.
Radical Feminism
A branch of conflict theory focuses on the role of capitalist male dominance in female criminality and victimization.
General Deterrence
A crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties.
Critical Criminology
The view that crime results from the imposition by the rich and powerful of their own moral standards and economic interests on the rest of society.
Social Control Theory
The view that most people do not violate the law because of their social bonds to family, peer group, school, and other institutions. If these bonds are weakened or absent, they become free to commit crime.
The scientific study of the nature, extent, cause, and control of criminal behavior.
The emotional turmoil and conflict caused when people believe that they cannot achieve their desires and goals through legitimate means.
Preventing crime before is occurs by means of the threat of criminal sanctions.
Social Reaction Theory
The view that society produces criminals by stigmatizing certain individuals as deviants, a label that they come to accept as a personal identity.
Developmental Theories
A view of crime holding that as people travel through the life course, their experiences along the way influence behavior patterns. Behavior changes at each stage of the human experience.
Peacemaking Criminology
A branch of conflict theory that stresses humanism, mediation, and conflict resolution as means to end crime.
Differential Association Theory
The view that criminal acts are related to a person's exposure to antisocial attitudes and values.
Social Structure
The stratifications, classes, institutions, and groups that characterize a society.
Culture of Poverty
The view that people in the lower class of society form a separate culture with its own values and norms that are in conflict with those of conventional society.
The absence or weakness of rules, norms, or guidelines on what is socially or morally acceptable.
Social Capital
Positive relations with individuals and institutions that foster self-worth and inhibit crime.
Left Realism
A branch of conflict theory that accepts the reality of crime as a social problem and stresses its impact on the poor.
Victim Precipitation
The role of the victim in provoking or encouraging criminal behavior.
Unrestricted behavior resulting from a loss of inhibition produced by an external influence, such as drugs or alcohol, or from a brain injury.
Routine Activities Theory
The view that crime is a product of three everyday factors: motivated offenders, suitable targets, and a lack of capable guardians.
Chemical substances that carry impulses from one nerve cell to another.
Focal Concerns
Central values and goals that, according to Walter Miller, differ by social class.
Latent Trait Theories
A view that human behavior is controlled by a master trait, present at birth or soon after, that influences and directs behavior.
Social Learning Theory
The view that human behavior is learned through observation of human social interactions, either directly from those in close proximity or indirectly from the media.
Specific Deterrence
Punishment severe enough to convince convicted offenders never to repeat their criminal activity.
A person whose personality is characterized by a lack of warmth and feeling, inappropriate behavioral responses, and an inability to learn from experience; also called a sociopath or an antisocial personality.
Collective Efficacy
A condition of mutual trust and cooperation that develops in neighborhoods that have a high level of formal and informal social control.

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