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pharm 1&2

Terms

undefined, object
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examples of schedule III drugs
tylenol with codeine,lortab, fiorinal, empirin with codeine
bioavailability of drugs
its the percentage of drug absorbtion into the systemic circulation for activity, eg drug injected IV has a 100% bioavailability
trademark/brand name/proprietary name
followed by symbol {r} which means that it is registered and its use is restricted to the owner of the drug, easier to remember, spell and pronouce and begins with a capital letter
therapeutic methods
different approaches to therapy eg drug therapy, diet, physiotherapy, psychological
official name
name by which the drug is listed by the US food and drug administration (FDA), the FDA is empowered by federal law to name the drugs for human use in the united states
generic name
its a common name , first letter is not usually capitalized, formularies are maintained by generic name
define drug properties regulated by the federal legislation
purity(state of being free from contamination),bioavailability(rate and extent to which an active drug enters the general circulation), potency(strength), efficacy(ability to produce a desired effect), safety(measures to prevent harm), toxicity (the extent, quality or degree of being poisonous)
pharmacology
study of drugs and their actions on living organisms
Martindale-the complete drug reference
2700pg published in britain and utilized worldwide
sources of drug information
american drug index,american hospital formulary service drug information,drug interaction facts, drugs facts and comparisons, handbook on injectable drugs, handbook of non prescribtion drugs,martindale-the complete drug reference, package inserts, natural medicines comprehensive database,physicians desk reference(PDR), nursing journals
schedule V drugs
lowest abuse potential, very limited physical or pscychological dependence, accepted medical use, prescriber determines refills,prescribtion may not be requirred, some products contain limited amounts of certain narcotic drugs generally used for antitussive and antidiarrheal properties
schedule I drugs
high potential for abuse,no currently accepted medical use in US,a lack of safety for use under medical supervision
proper name
nonproprietary (generic) name used to describe an official drug in canada
antagonists
drugs that attach to a receptor but do not stimulate a response
harrison narcotic act
passed in1914, regulated sale of narcotics drugs(use prescribtion), first used the word narcotic, aid inprevention of drug addiction or dependence
intensity of drug response
related to how well the drug molecule fits into the receptor and to the number of receptor sites that are occupied
drugs and responses
drugs do not create new responses but alter exisiting physiologia activity eg HBP medications
pharmacodynamics
the study of the interactions between drugs and their receptors and the series of events that result in a pharmacologic response
drugs
chemical substances that have an effect on living organisms
agonists
drugs that interact with a receptor to stimulate a response
examples of schedule II drugs
opium(morphine), meperidine, amphetamines, short-acting barbiturates(secobarbital), methadone, percodan, methylphenidate
controlled substances act 1970
established the DEA (drug enforcement administration), DEA regulates the manufacturing and dispensing of narcotics, divided addictive drugs into 5 categories, these drugs are known as scheduled drugs or controlled substances
four stages of medications
ADME-absorbtion, distribution, metabolism, excretion
absorbtion
movement of a drug from its administration site through or across tissue into systemic circulation, the degreee and rate of drug absorbtion also depends on the drugs mechanism of absorbtion
USP dictionary of USAN and international drug names
published annually is a compilation of 10,000 drug names containing USAN(united states adopted name),pronunciation guide,molecular formular, graphic formular,chemical and brand names,manufacturer, therapeutic, category
drug classification
body systems(eg cardiovascular, urinary), therapeutic use/clinical indications (eg antibiotics,antacids, diuretics), physiologic/chemical action(anticholinergics,calcuim channel blockers), prescribtive/non-prescribtive(OTC),ilegal drugs (recreeational drugs used for non-therapeutic purposes)
examples of schedule I drugs
heroin, LSD(lysergic acid diethylamide), peyote, mescaline, marijuana, STP
partial agonists
drugs that attach and elicit a small response, but also block other responses
examples of schedule IV drugs
librium, valium, chloral hydrate, darvon, phenobarbitalpropoxyphene, flurazepam, temazepam
schedule IV drugs
low potential abuse, currently accepted medical use in the US,potentially limited physical or psychological dependence, telephone orders permitted, refills okay
pharmacokinetics
the study of the mathematical relationships among the absorbtion, distribution,metabolism and excretion of individual medicines over time
receptors
drugs form chemical bonds with specific sites called receptors within the body (key and lock)
Two major authouritative science-based books in US
the united states pharmacopeia (USP), National formulary (NF) published by the united states pharmacopeial convention inc as a single book
schedule III drugs
high potential for abuse but lesser than schedule I and II, accepted medical use in US,abuse potential that may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence
therapeutic drugs/medcines
are drugs used in the prevention or treatment of diseases
schedule II drugs
high abuse potential,currently accepted medical use in US, potentially severe psychological or physical dependence, telephone orders only in emergencies if written RX follows promptly
official sources of american drug standards
the united states pharmacopeia (USP)/National formulary(NF)-non-government organization that ensures the purity/laboratory tests and potency of drugs, they are also called united staes pharmacopeial convention inc.
examples of schedule V drugs
lomotil, robitussin AC
chemical name
its most meaningful to the chemist, helps the chemist understand exactly the chemical constitution of the drug and the exact placing of its atoms or molecular groupings

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