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Sociology Theio 6,7,9


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any act that violates a social norm
3 factors that determine what deviance is
public consensus or power

criminal deviance
violation of a criminal law
noncriminal deviance
does not involve violation of criminal laws
Homicide is,
a crime of passion
personal crime
-handguns are the weapon of choice

involves the use of force to get a woman to do something sexual against her will
Binge Drinking
5 drinks or more for men
4 drinks or more for women
all in a row

Why binge drink
social pressure to fit in
stress from having to work hard for good grades
corporate crime
committed by company officials without the onset use of force, and their effect on the victims is not readily traceable to the offender
how corporate criminals maintain their self-image
seeing oneself as a victim rather than an offender
denial of criminal intent

typified by loss of touch with reality
persistant fear, anxiety, or worry about trivial maters
Most common mental problems
anxiety and phobia followed by depression or alcoholism
social forces involved in the development of mental problems
social class, gender, ethnicity, and culture
Altruistic suicide
individuals are so strongly tied to their group that they effectively lose their selves and stand ready to do their group\'s bidding
\"normlessness\" a social condition in which norms are absent, weak, or in conflict
may rise when there is an inconsistency in society between the cultural goals and the institutionalized means of achieving the goals
Merton\'s strain theory
4 responses

accepting both the cultural goal of success and the use of legitimate means for achieving that goal.
occurs when people no longer set high success goals but continue to toil as conscientious, diligent workers
withdrawal from society, caring neither about success nor about working
occurs when people reject and attempt to change both the goals and the means approved by society
Hirschi\'s Control Theory
4 types of social bonds
attachment to conventional people and institutions
commitment to conformity
involvement in conventional activities
belief in the moral validity of social rules

disintegrative shaming
the wrongdoer is punished in such a way as to be stigmatized, rejected, or ostracized
reintegrative shaming
more positive and involves making wrongdoers feel guilty while showing them understanding, forgiveness, or even respect
Marginal surplus population
superfluous or useless to the economy
compelled to commit property crimes to survive
3 reasons why deviance is more common among the powerful:
stronger deviant motivation
the powerful enjoy greater opportunities for deviance
the powerful are subjected to weaker social control

differential association
the process of acquiring, through association with others
an individual is likely to become deviant if they engage in this
primary deviance
refers to these violations of norms that a person commits for the first time and without considering them deviant
secondary deviance
refers to such repeated norm violations, which the violators themselves recognize as deviant
Factors that explain the lower rates of deviance among women
social control
lack of deviant opportunity

most effective way of controlling deviance
internalization through socialization
control by others
needed to limit deviance and maintain social order
informal controls through discipline, criticism, ridicule, etc
Formal is imposed by police, judges, law enforcement, etc.

Why the death penalty doesn\'t prevent murder
murder is a crime of passion
casual forces of murder are simply too powerful to be neutralized by the threat of capital punishment
Willful deviance
a crime and the criminal justice system is called on to control it
unwillful deviance
an illness, and medicine, as a social institution used to control it
medicaliztion of deviance
diagnosing and treating deviant behavior as a disease
War on drugs consists of two basic strategies
Punitive approach (war on drugs)
using law enforcement to stop the supply of drugs and punish drug sellers and users
supportive approach (war on drugs)
using drug prevention or education and treatment to reduce the demand for drugs and help drug addicts
social stratification
the system in which some people get more or fewer rewards than others
three most important bases of stratification in the U.S.
wealth - economic rewards
power- political rewards
prestige - social rewards

Karl Marx division of industrial society (2 major and 1 minor class)
bourgeoise (capitalist)
Proletariat (workers)
Petite bourgeoise (small capitalists)

the ability to control the behavior of others, even against their will
-power is associated with wealth
power elite
a small group of top leaders not just from business corporations but also from the federal government and the military
have similar backgrounds, values, and interests
status system
a system in which people are stratified according to their social prestigue
wealth and power are objective meaning...
individual can have them regardless of what others think of them
prestige is is subjective meaning...
depends on how the individual is seen by others
can be associated with occupation
status inconsistency
the condition in which the same individual is given the conflicting status rankings, such as being high in occupation but low in ethnicity or gender
Master slave system
some people are held in servitude as someone else\'s property
Chattel slavery
similar to the ancient format of human bondage
debt bondage
working to pay off loans
In the Feudal System, societies were stratified into 2 groups
Serfs or peasants - those who worked the land
Lords or landlords - those who appropriated some of the produce and labor of the workers
Caste system
a relatively rigid stratification system in which people\'s positions are ascribed and fixed
ascribed positions
primarily determined by inherited characteristics
fixed positions
people must marry within their caste, children are born into their parent\'s caste, and movement from one caste to another almost never occurs
India\'s 5 castes
based mostly on religion
Brahmins (priests and scholars)
Artisans and Menial workers
Untouchables (work is considered too spiritually unclean)

class system
a relatively open stratification system in which peoples positions are achieved and changeable
Kuznets curve
the changing relationship between development and inequality
Social class
a category of people who have about the same amount of income, power, and prestige.
3 methods for determining a person\'s class
reputational method
subjective method
objective method

objective method
involves identifying social classes using income, occupation, and education to rank people
determines SES
reputational method
identifying social classes by selecting a group of people and asking them to rank others
subjective method
identifying social classes by asking people to rank themselves
(most identify in middle or working class)
Upper class is ____% of the population
Old rich
families that have been wealthy for generations
new rich
created their own wealth - flamboyant with the money
Largest class in the U.S.
Middle class
Life chances
the likelihood of living a good, long, successful life
class that has better life chances
Upper class
tastes, preferences, and ways of living
absolute poverty
the lack of minimum food and shelter necessary for maintaining life
Relative Poverty
biological poverty
a state of deprivation resulting from having less than the majority of the people have
feminizaiton of poverty
a huge number of women living in poverty mostly as single mothers of families
Poverty\'s positive functions for soceity
makes it possible for society\'s dirty work to be done
poor make it easier for others to pursue their business and professional careers
extremely poor
people who sleep in streets, parks, shelters, and other places
Homelessness has arisen from 3 social forces
increased shortage of inexpense housing for poor families and poor unattached persons
the decreasing demand for unskilled labor that has occurred since the 1980s
the erosion of public welfare benefits that has occurred over the last two decades

Social Mobility and different forms
movement from one social standing to another

vertical mobility
moving up or down the status ladder
horizontal mobility
movement from one job to another within the same status category
intragenerational mobility
change in an individual\'s social standing (career mobility)
Intergenerational mobility
a change in social standing from one generation to the next
structural mobility
related to social factors - changes in society
individual mobility
social mobility related to an individual\'s personal achievement and characteristics race, gender, ethnicity, education, occupation, etc.)
global stratification
some nations being in higher or lower class than others in a social system
Human development index
a measure of the quality of life or living standard (lower in poor countries)
three types of child exploitation
work at home
labor outside the home

dependency theory
rich nations exploit poor ones for power and commercial gain, thereby perpetuating poverty, underdevelopment, and dependency on rich nations
the economic control exercised by rich nations over their former colonies
gender roles
patterns of attitude and behavior that a society expects of its members because they are female or male
the materials in a cell that transmit hereditary traits to the carrier from the carrier\'s parents
chemical substances that stimulate or inhibit vital biological processes
most differences between men and women are due to what?
Socialization more than biology
Gender socialization - what helps determine gender roles
the family
peer groups
mass media

prejudice and discrimination based on one\'s gender
fundamental characteristic of sexism
the belief that women are inferior to men
power feminism
helps all kinds of women (liberal or conservative) to win more political offices
the belief that women and men should be equal in various aspects of their lives
3 feminist movements
1st - mid 19th century - voting rights
2nd - mid 1960s - less discrimination in work and school
3rd - 1990s - (Grrl Feminism) More access to college and jobs

sexual harassment
an unwelcome act of sexual nature
-courts will only take this seriously if it happened more than once
instrumental role
requires performance of a task (functionalist perspective)
expressive role
requires taking care of personal relationships (functionalist perspective)
natural physical process of aging
-involves a decline in the body\'s functioning which increases the vulnerability to death
an abnormal condition characterized by serious memory loss
crystalline intelligence
wisdom and insight into the human condition (as shown by one\'s skills in language, philosophy, music or painting)
Fluid intelligence
the ability to grasp abstract relationships (as in mathematics, physics, or some other science)
-tends to stabilize or decline with age
prejudice and discrimination against older people
roleless role
being assigned no role in society\'s division of labor

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