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Pharmacoeconomics - - MidTerm Exam 2006


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Type of analysis that measures costs and benefits in pecuniary units and computes a net monetary gain/loss or a cost-benefit ratio
Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA)
Type of analysis that compares drugs or programs having a common health outcome (i.e. reduction of blood pressure, life years saved) in a situation where, fore a given level of resources, the decision maker wishes to maximise the health benefits conferre
Cost-effectiveness Analysis (CEA)
Type of analysis that finds the least costly program among those shown or assumed to be of equal benefit
Cost minimization analysis (CMA)
Study of analysis that measures benefits in utility-weighted life-years (QALYs); computes a cost per utility-measure ratio for comparison between programs
Cost-utility analysis
An explicit quantitative approach for prescribing decisions under conditions of uncertainty.
Decision Analysis
Fixed and variable costs associated directly with a healthcare intervention. (i.e. physiscian salaries)
Direct medical costs
A nonmedical cost associated with provisiosn of medical services (transportation)
Direct nonmedical cost
Cost of medical treatment (in life years) gained through an earlier intervention
Indirect medical cost
Cost associated with reduced productivity due to illness, disability, or death
Indirect nonmedical cost (productivity cost)
The cost of pain and suffering occurring as a result of illness or treatment
Intangible cost
A process through which the robustness of an economic model is assessed by examining the changes in results of the analysis when key variables are varied over a specified range.
Sensitivity Analysis
Output values are equal between alternative treatments
Emphasizes patient preferences, quality of life, quality adjusted life years, time trade off or standard gamble.
Additional cost incurred by increasing the scale of a program (usually differs from average cost)
Marginal Analysis
Value foregone, associated with the next best use of a possible investment.
Opportunity Cost
Calculation of health benefits in terms of increased productivity.
Human Capital Method
Benefit (in monetary units) minus costs (in monetary units); a basic decision criterion in CBA.
Net Benefit
Method of calculating the increased cost effectiveness ratio of a new intervention compared to an existing, standard intervention
Incremental Analysis
Type of retrospective study design in epidemiology
Case Control
Type of prospective study design in epidemiology
Type of statistical value used in retrospective studies in epidemiology
Type of number helpful in understanding how many patients are required to show a difference.
Type of statistical value used in prospecitive studies in epidemiology

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