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Mr. Swanson from huntsville high's semester exam glossary worksheet


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members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola
in the Ottoman Empire, the policy of taking boys from conquered Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers
Treaty of Tordesillas
a 1914 agreement between Portugal and Spain declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands on the East would belong to Portugal
a person of mixed European and African ancestry
Sepoy Mutiny
an 1857 rebellion of Muslim soldiers against the British in India
concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters
the everyday language of people in aregion or country
the region of southeastern Europe now occupied by Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania and the European part of Turkey
a member of the native peoples of Australia
in the British Empire, a nation allowed to govern its own domestic affairs
Catholic Reformation
a 16th Century movement in which the Roman Catholic Church sought to make changes in response to the Protestant Reformation
a movement founded in the 1980's to promote the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine
a group of people who, in 1620, founded the coloby of Plymouth in Massachusetts to escape religious persecution in England
an economic system based on private ownership and on the investment of money on business ventures in order to make a profit
Peace of Augsburg
a 1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Coup D'Etat
a sudden seizure of political power in a nation
Opium War
a conflict between Britain and China lasting from 1839 - 1842 over Britain's opium trade in China
the theory proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700's that government actions are useful only if they promote
Monroe Doctrine
US policy of opposition to European interference in Latin America. announced by President James Monroe in 1823
a formal agreement especially one between the Pope and a government dealing with the control of church affairs
a policy of treating subject people as if they were children providing for their needs but not giving them rights
Columbian Exchange
the global transfer of plants, animals and diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas
Scorched-Earth Policy
the practice of burning crops and killing livestock during war so the enemy can not live off of the land
open door policy
a policy, proposed by the US in 1899, under which all nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China
a person who leaves his native country for political reasons
a person of mixed Spanish and Native American history
Home Rule
a control over internal matters granted to the residents of a region by a ruling govermnent
a policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs
a philosophy based on the idea that nothing can be known for certain
Habeas Corpus
a document requiring that a prisoner be brought before a court in parliment and in elections, including suffrage for all men
an adoption of the social, political or economic institutions of Western, especially European or American countries
a type of Japanese drama in which music, dance and mime are used to present stories
Penal Colony
a colony to which convicts are sent as an alternative prison
a member of the Protestant church founded by teachings of Martin Luther
the growth of cities and migration of people into them
a number of loosely organized fighting forces that make surprise attacks on enemy troops occupying his or her country
overlord or one with power; title for Ottoman rulers during the rise of the Ottoman Empire
a foreign policy based on a consideration of the strategic locations or products of other lands
Great Fear
a wave of senseless panic that spread through the French countryside after the storming of Bastille in 1789
relating to the church of England
Social Contract
the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government
the doctrine the God decided all things beforehand, including which people will be eternally saved
a member of polysian people who settled in New Zealand around 800 AD
Manifest Destiny
the idea popular among mid-19th century Americans that was the right and the duty of the US to rule North America from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean
a member of an elite force of soldiers in the Ottoman Empire
Factors of Production
the resources including land, labor and capital that are needed to produce goods and services
Extraterritorial Rights
an exemption of foreign residence from the laws of a country
Atlantic Slave Trade
the buying, transporting and selling of Africans for work in the Americas
Crop Rotation
the system of growing a different crop in a field each year to preserve the fertility in the land
to cancel or set aside
Reign of Terror
the period from mid 1793 to mid 1794 when Maximillian Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
government controlled by religious leaders
a philosophy based on the idea that people give meaning to their lives through their choices and actions
a 16th-century movement for religious reform leading to the founding of Christian churches that rejected the Pope's authority
Continental System
Napoleon's policy of preventing trade between Great Britain and continental Europe to destroy Great Britain's economy
Geocentric Theory
in the MIddle Ages, the earth-centered view of the universe in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object in the center of the universe
Balance of Power
political situation in which no one nation is powerful enough to pose a threat against others
a Japanese form of poetry consisting of 3 unrhymed lines of five, seven, five
a renaissance intelectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potiential and achievements
a Dutch colony in South Africa
Scientific Revolution
a major change in Europian thought starting in the mid 1500s in which the study of the natural world
an independent geopolitical unit of people having a common culture and identity
an 18th centryy European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason
a direct vote in which a country's people have the oppurtunity to approve or reject proposal
in Spanish colonial society, a colonist who was born in Latin America to Spanish parents
a group of people who sought freedom from religious persecution in England by founding a colony at Massachusetts Bay in the eraly 1600's
a pardon releasing a person from punishments due for a sin
in Spanish colonial society, colonists who were born in Spain
Congress of Vienna
a series of meetings in 1814-15 during which the European leaders sought to establish long-lasting peace and security after the defeat of Napoleon
Boxer Rebellion
a 1900 revolt in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country
Enlightened Despot
one of the 18th century European monarchs who was inspired by Enlightenment ideas to rule jusly and respect the rights of subjects
an early 19th Century movement in art and thought which focused on emotion rather than reason and society
the adding of a region to the territory of an existing political unit
a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, and socially
Divine Right
the idea that monarchs are God's representations on earth and are therfore answerable only to God
an economic system in which all means of production-land, mines, factories, railroads and businesses-are not owned by people and private property does not exist
Sphere of Influence
a foreign region in which a nation has control over trade and other economic activities
Boer War
a conflict lasting from 1899-1902 in which the Boers fought the British for control of territory in South Africa
an economic system in which the factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the walfare of all
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and a favorable balance of trade
the British controlled portions of India
Federal System
a system of gevernment in which power is divided between a central authority and a number of individual states
a period of European histroy lasting about 1300-1600 during which renewed interest in classical culture led to far reaching changes in art, learning and views of the world. means rebirth
one of the fenced-in fields created by wealthy British landowners on land that was formerly worked by village farmers
the belief that people should be loyal mainly to their nation that is to the people with whom they share a culture and history rather than to an empire
the use of troops or ships to prevent commercial traffic from entering or leaving a city or region
a warrior for Islam
Edict of Nantes
a 1598 declaration in which the French King Henry IV promised that Protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities
machine for beheading people, used by means of execution during the French Revolution
Laissez faire
the idea that the government should not interfere or regulate industries and businesses
Heliocentric Theory
the idea that earth and other planets revolve around the sun

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