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Texes: EC-4 (English Lang. Arts/ Reading)

Domain I: English Language Arts and Reading


undefined, object
copy deck
free verse
poetry that lacks rhyme and structured meter
The most common type of narrative order in children's books is...
chronological; the events are told in the order they happen
running records
used to track students' reading progress
emergent literacy
childeren's beliefs about and experiences with reading and writing prior to formal instruction.
Phonemic awareness
identifying and manipulating the individual sounds in spoken words.
expository writing
a type of oral or written discourse that is used to explain, describe, give information or inform.
A fourth grade teacher asks a paraprofessional to lead a small-group discussion of a story students have read. To ensure the likely success of this activity, the teacher should-
provide the paraprofessional with a set of questions to help promote students' comprehension of the story.
self-correction and feedback
contribute to greater fluency. (Important for Teachers to help students maintain positive attitude.)
fiction; stories are not intended to be accepted as ture; larger-than-life characters adn very unusual happenings
Children learn letter shapes by...
playing with blocks, plastic letters, and alphabet blocks.
shared reading
a modeling strategy in which the teacher reads a story and the children join in.
shape poetry
peom that has the shape of its subject.
sielnt reading
contributes to fluency by allowing children to familiarize themselves with key vocabulary, so that oral reading of the same passage can be based on a higher proportion of sight words. (SSR, Sustained Silent Reading or DEAR, Drop everything and read)
accurate, speedy word recognition; is necessary, but not sufficient, for fluency development.
informational books/articles
nonfiction; contains factual information about a specific subject.
Context clues are
clues to the meaning of a word contained in the text that surround it. These clues include definitions, examples, and restatements. Teaching students strategies for identifying and using context clues is an important technique for vocabulary development.
Onset- Rime-
An onset is the initial consonant(s) sound of a syllable, and a rime is the remaining set of phonemes in the syllable; e.g., in sat, the onset is /s/ and the rime is /at/.
Early blending activities should use words that begin with....
continuous consonants (e.g., f, l, m, r, s) because these sounds are easy to hear and can be blended without distortion. The children should "stretch out" and connect the sounds in the word (e.g., ssssaaaatttt, rather than /s/--/a/--/t/).
A child's ability to point to words during th intitial stages of reading indicates-
the child's development of an awareness of words and of the correspondence between written and spoken language.
A fourth grader who reads at the seventh grade level often seems bored and unchallenged. What would be most appropriate for the teacher to do to promote this student's reading development?
Help the student find books to read that are of high personal interest.
Independent Reading Level
student pronounces 95% or more of words correctly and shows more thatn 90% accuracy in response to comprehension questions.
a mistake in reading written words such as saying the wrong word, leaving out a word, repeating a word, inserting a word.
the separable, individual sounds in a word. A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in speech; e.g., in the word cat, there are 3 phonems: /k/, /a/, /t/.
receptive language skills
listening and reading
samllest meaningful components of words
Preschool children's oral language development is best fostered by...
providing the children with opportunities to communicate with their peers and with adults in a wide range of contexts.
Cloze Procedure
An assessment method used to determind readability of a text that involves deleting words from the text and leaving blank spaces.
Readers' Theatre
a reading activity in which students rehearse and perform a play whose script is derived from a dialogue- rich book; promotes reading fluency and cooperative interaction with peers.
structure of a phrase or sentence.
rules for effective connunication in different contexts.
Reading to students in a text that is beyond their independent reading level is a good practice because
is exposes students to new vocabulary and concepts to expand their knowledge of word meanings.
How can a teacher help students learn the importance of punctuation?
Have them read a passage in which punctuation has been omitted.
big books
Large, oversized books used in shared reading, usually at the emergent reading level.
To help ESL students begin to develop a sight vocabulary-
display high frequency words and label objects in the classroom
Two best predictors of later success in reading are...
phonemic awareness and alphabetic knowledge.
Talk-aloud activity
the teacher ask questions to guide students through a series of steps they must follow to complete a task.
comprehension strategies of skilled readers
activating and using background knowledge, generating and asking questions, making inferences, predicting, summarizing, visualizing
poem consiting of four lines of verse
How long should phonics be taught?
According to the National Reading Panel, approximately two years is sufficient in the primary grades.
acrostic poem
a poem where the first letter of each line spells a word
organized by actual location in space
.To help young children hear, and pronounce, all the sounds in a new word...
have children clap the syllables as they hear, and pronounce, them.
In evaluating the suitability of children's books for use as elementary classroom reading material, what is most important to consider first?
wheter classroom use of these reading materials will address the grade level reading TEKS.
content literacy
used to describe the ability to use written texts as sources of information about a given topic or area.
Analyzing what an unfamiliar words' placement in a sentence suggest about the meaning of the word is an example of....
using syntactic clues.
concepts of print
print represents spoken language; print is directional from left to right and top to bottom; books are read from front to back; the strings of letters separated by spaces in text are words, and individual letters are different from words; sentences begin with capital letters and end with periods, etc.....
Directed Reading Activity (DRA)
teacher activates and develops schemata by linking the topic of the text to students' own experiences or finding ways to get students interested in an unfamilar topic. (a teacher directed activity)
expository texts
texts that provide factual information and explanations.
fluency stage
Children become more familiar with written language, and their decoding becomes more automatic as a result of lerning more sight words.
cause and effect
lists one or more cuases and the resulting effect or effects
What graphic organizer is best to use for literary fiction?
story map or story tree.
pre-reading stage
alphabetic and graphophonemic knowledge, may be in the process of learning word-analysis skills, but they don't yet have ability to read unfamiliar words.
associating letters w/ sounds
fiction; stories seen as true in the culture
To help preshcoolsers develop an understanding that print has meaning-
have the sutdents "write" messages and draw pictures on holiday cards.
Instrudctional Reading Level
student pronounces 90-94% of the words correctly & 70-89% of the questions correctly.
When discussing reading issues with parents/guardians teachers should-
use nontechnical terms since the use of professional jargon can create barriers to communication.
SSR (Sustained silent Reading)
a reading activity in which a block of time, typically 15-30 minutes, is allotted for students to engage in uninterrupted silent reading for pleasure.
reading to learn stage
attention is focused primarily on content rather than the act of reading itself.
patterns of pitch that contribute to the meanings of phrases and sentences.
combining individual phonemes to form words or combining onsets and rimes to make syllables, then combining syllables to make words.
Irregular/hig-frequency words
words that appear often in printed English (e.g., a, the, in, to, no, you, for), but are not readily decodable in the early stages of reading instruction.
awareness of mental contents and processes. If "cognition" refers to thinking, then "metacognition" refers to thinking about thinking.
Phonics Instruction
the systematic, exlicit presentation of sound-letter relationships; for children to benfit from it they need phonemic awareness.
Leveled Books
Books that have been sorted according to level of difficulty so that children and teachers can select books at the child's appropriate reading level.
the use of one word in place of another word.
explains how two or more things are alike and/or how they are different
way put together
repeated consonant sounds occurring at the beginning of words or within words; e.g., big, blue bear
A balanced reading program consists of...
explicit, systematic phonics instruction with meaningful, connected reading of informative, engaging text. It includes five main areas of reading instruction: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and text domprehension.
receptive language
ability to understand what is being said
fiction; plots are fast-paced and revolve around a suspenseful crime or mysterious happening.
tall tale
humorous, exaggerated story with characters who do unbelievable things
A fourth grader demonstrates good decoding skills when reading leveled word lists, but often makes miscues and rarely self-corrects when reading text passages. To help this student learn to self-correct, the teacher should-
Encourage the student to think about whether each sentence makes sense as it is read.
Graphophonic Cues
cues based on letter-sound correspondence that help readers decode text and determin its meaning. (When readers are using letter sounds and thier poistion in word sto help decode a word.)
initial reading stage
sound out many of the words they read through phonic analysis. (Also known as the decoding stage because they focus on decoding of individual words.)
print awareness
understanding the nature of print, the function it serves, and the conventions governing its use. (Allows children to distinguish between words and other forms of representation.)
evaluative comprehension
ablility to use critical thinking skills, logical analysis, and aesthetic considerations to evaluate a text.
literal comprehension
refers to the understanding of information that is explicitly stated in a written passage. (main idea, sequence of events, knowlege of vocabulary)
historical fiction
fiction; based on real historical events
repeated reading
Method in which children reread a short, meaningful passage until a degree of fluency is achieved.
One way to help a child that is having trouble with letter recognition is-
to have the child use his/her finger to trace a letter that the teacher has made from textured material and say the letter name while tracing.
spelling patterns
patterns of letters or sounds in words that constitute a word family, for example, -an as in can, man, fan.
Directed reading- Thinking activity (DRTA)
A guided reading activity in which the teacher breaks the text into shorter segments, and next facilitates a discussion on the key concepts related to the text tiopic an thereafter leads the student in predicting, reading silently to confirm predicitons, discussing to refine and clarify predictions; and then formulating new predictions about the remainder of the text; this process is repeated until the reading of the text is completed.
guided reading
teacher explains the purpose for reading a particular text as well as the structure for how to respond to what is read.
Helen Keller
American writer
a short, unrhymed poem consiting of twenty-two syllables distributed as 2,4, 6, 8, 2 in five lines.
figure of speech which involves a direct comparison between two unlike thinks, usually with the words like or as
What are the advantages of using a basal program?
Basal books are controlled in their vocabulary and sentence structure
The main feature of a systematic and explicit phonics program is:
the direct teaching of a set of leeter-sound relationships in a clearly defined sequence.
To promote a preschoolers's understanding of the connection between spoken and written language
have the child tell a story and watch as the teacher writes down what the child says.
Phonemic awareness:
the ability ot notice, think about, and work with the individual sounds in spoken words. (Focuses on sounds of language, not meaning)
For helping preshcool children listen attentively
establish a cuing system that signals that its time to listen and use it routinely.
Alphabetic principle
an understanding that letters and letter patterns represent the sounds of spoken words.
lyric poem
rhythmic and melodic poem
two vowels to make another sound, oe in "shoe"
meanings of words and phrases
Frustration Reading Level
student pronounces less than 50% of the words correctly and answers less than 70% questions correctly.
running record
a tool for scoring and analyzing a student's reading ability.
figure of speech which involves an implied comparison between tow relatively unlike things using a form of be
one inch is equal to
expressive language skills
speaking and writing
Salvador Dali
Spanish surrealist painter
Pablo Picasso
Spanish painter and sculptor
round character
fully developed, with many traits--bad and good-- shown in the story
decodable text
text in which most of the words are made up of sound-letter relationships that have been taught, but that contain enough high-frequency irregular, and story words to make them sound natural.
A third grade teacher make a practice of reading aloud to students from hig-interest books that are above the students' independent reading level. Why do this?
to stimulate students' interest in literature and to introduce new vocabulary words and concepts to expand their knowledge of word meanings.
How can a teacher best identify a student's word identification stratategies?
Ask the student to explain how he/she figured out the word.
guided reading
instruction that supports and extend the reading process
a seven-lined poem set up in a diamond shape
An effect way to promote the oral develpment of a 3-year-old preschooler is to...
verbally label adn describe events in the child's world.
poem consiting of 14 lines with a formal rhyming scheme
When a student attempts to read a word in a sentence and asks the teachers, "Is that right?" The teacher's best response is-
to ask the student to reread the sentence and see whether the word makes sense.
getting meaning from written text
phoneme manipulation
working with phonemes in words; includes working with onsets and rimes, deleting phonemes from words, adding phonemes to words, substituting one phoneme for another to make a new word, blending phonemes to make words, and segmenting words into phonemes.
A modeling activity in which the teacher verbalizes the teacher's thoughts while reading; used to model ways in which skilled readers make predictions, use visulization, related prior knowledge, and moitor and self-correct their comprehensions.
breaking words into individual phonemes, breaking words into syllables, or breaking syllables into onsets and rimes.
An appropriate activity to imporve first-graders' listening comprehension skills is-
to have them follow short (3-step) directions presented orally.
fiction; short brief stories that teach a lesson or moral.
nonfiction; contains factual information about a real person
Reading fluency includes...
a combinabtion of accuracy and rate; developed by reading and rereading a large number of stories and informational text that are at an apporpriate reading level.
Phonological awareness
an awareness of an the ability to manipulate the sounds of sponken words; it is a broad tern that includes indentifying and making rhymes, recognizing alliteration, identifying and working with syllables in spoken words, identifying and working with onsets and rhymes in spoken syllables.
clusters of ideas about objects, places, and events.
a unrhymed japanese verse consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables or 17 sylllables in all.
think-aloud activity
the teacher shares with students the thinking process that he/she goes through to complete a task.
consonant blend
constists of two or more consonants sonded together in such a way that each is heard- like the blend of b and l in the word blend.
To help children understand that words are made up of individual sounds that can be separted and counted use....
auditory cues (e.g., clapping the syllables) and viual cues (e.g., Elkonin boxes, counters, chiops, blocks, etc.) to mark the syllables.
phonological awareness
an awareness of and the ability to manipulate the sounds of spoken words.
Invented or temporary spelling
helps to increas phonemic awareness and increases knowlege of spelling patterns.
oral recitation lessons (ORL)
kind of repeated reading activity exercise based on interactions between teacher and students.
Literacy develpment instruction for English language learners should...
value and build upon children's home languages.
a rhymed humorous, nonsense poem of five lines with last line ending in a suprise twist; highly controlled. Lines 1,2, and 5 rhyme.; Lines 3 and 4 rhyme
narrative poem (tells a story) set to music
When brainstorming potential topics for writing assignments, students should be mindful that...
no suggestion or statement by a student should be criticized as wrong or inappropriate.
sight words
words children identify quickly, accurately, and effortlessly.
Consonant diagraph
constist of two consonants that together represent one sound- like the ph sound in the word digraph.
What word identification strategies would help a child understand and pronounce correctly the words read, wind, and in a reading passage?
semantic and syntactic cues
how are you putting it together? fuctioning to solve a problem
K-W-L teaching model
K- What I know. W- What I want to know. L- What I learned. Relies on metacognition.
Shared reading
reading aloud to children and talking about the books and stories
Organizational patterns:
spatial, sequence, cause and effect, comparison and contrast
literal comprehension
understanding that written words of a text
literary elements:
character, plot, setting, theme, point of view, tone, style.
organized in numerical or chronological order.
the process of tranlating written words using letter-sound correspondence and blending the sounds into words
Graphophonemic Knowledge
letter recognition and letter-sound correspondence.
One of the easies phonemic awareness tasks for young children is...
the ability to identify the initial sound of a word, such as the /d/ sound in dog.
partner reading
(paired reading) requires students to work in pairs and students take turns reading a passage.
Effective sequence for introducing children to phonemes
1. phoneme comparison in the following order: beginning, ending, and middle sounds 2. Phoneme blending 3. Linking letters 4. Manipulating phoneses through deletion, addition, substitution 5. Phoneme segmentation
Anna Mary "Grandma" Moses
American artist
steps in the writing process
1. prewriting- strategies such as brainstorming, graphic organizers, notes, and logs to generate ideas and plans to determind audience and purpose; 2. draft- develop by organizing ideas into paragraphas to suit the audience and purpose 3. revise- draft for coherence, progression, and logical support of ideas by adding, elaborating, deleting, combining, and rearraging text; 4. edit- drafts to ensure standard usage, varied senence structure, and appropriate word choice; 5. publishing- use available technology to support aspects of creating, revising, editing, and publishing final product
When a teacher read aloud expressively, modifying his/her voice to convey story elements this...
models good reading and also promotes children's receptive language development.
A most effective informal reading assessment to check students' understanding of a reading passage is to-
have the student stalk in their own words about what they have read.
the use of words that mimic sounds; e.g., pop!
To best asses a preschoolers understanding of concepts of print?
Ask the child to "read" a book while the teacher watches and listens.
Vowel digraph
consists of two vowels that together represent one sound- like the oa in boart tht makes the long o sound.
Fantasy/science fiction
fiction; plots contain some elements that could not happen in the world as we know it today
cases in which a student reads a word that is different from the one that is printed.
environmental print
written text that's observable in one's surroundings, such as signs, labels, stickers, billboards, and brand names.
fiction; plots center around adventures of heroic figures.
Inquiry teaching
when teachers ask and then help students answer questions by propsing hypotheses, gathering and evaluating data, and generating conclusions. This promotes an understanding of the scientific method.
one meter is equal to
books of true experience
nonfiction; true stories aobut real events from a person's life or parts of his/her life
cueing systems
cues used by the reader to draw on or gain meaning from text. They include: structural analysis- word identification skill that focuses on word parts- prefixes, root words, suffixes, inflectional endings (e.g., -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est), and derivational endings (e.g., -y, -ly, -ial, -ic). semantic- using background knowledege/ experience with word meanings. Syntactic- using word order and knowlege of language patterns. Graphophonic- using knowldege of letters and sounds.
inferential comprehension
understanding of information that isn't explicitly given, but rather implied in a written passage. (make predictions)
a prefix or suffix
refers to the sounds that letters represent and how these sounds and letters combine to form words.
choral reading
takes place when a group of students or an entire class reads out loud.
realistic fiction
fiction; story that can actually happen and is true to life
reading readiness skills
alphabetic knowledge
the letters that spell the sounds in a word; e.g., in the word cat, the sound /k/ is represented by the grapheme (letter) c.
predictable/pattern books
fiction; plots are simple, fast- paced, predictable
a vowel pain in which the sound glides from one vowel to the other- like oi, oy, ou, and ow in foil, boy, out, and cow.
diagraph "The H brothers"
sh- quiet brother, wh- whisler brother, ch- train brother, th-nasty brother
smallest unit of sound
Inferential comprehension
being able to draw conclusion by reading "between the lines"
the smallest unit of meaning. It cannot be divided into smaller units without losing its meaning. Sopme morphemes can stand alone like the words, a, dog, or cat; others cannot such as the prefix re or the suffix ly.
the stongs, stories, myths, and proverbs of people or "folk" as handed down by word of mouth
A student's has satisfactory decoding skills, but the student has weak comprehension when reading. What should the teacher do to help the student?
Explicitly teach the student how to apply various comprehension strategies as the student reads.
flat character
not fully developed; we only know one side of the character
A student has comprehension difficulty with content area reading. What shoudl the teacher do to help the student?
Explicitly teach the student about the parts and format of various nonfiction texts and the specialized terminology and language the texts use.
To promote children's receptive language development
have frequent conversations with them- both individually andin gorups- about topics and activities of personal interest to them.
Having first graders write simple words at the same time they are first learning to recognize words in print is most likely to promote their reading development by-
reinforcing their knowledge of the alphabetic principle.
SQ3R method
is a student-directed approach in which students are taught five steps for studing content-area and expository texts: Survey, Question, Read, Recite, & Review.
Texas primary reading inventory (2 or 3 times a year)
The role of phonemic awareness in emergent literacy is
to prepare students to match speech sounds with letters in written words.
Reading levels for text material
frustrational- is able to read less than 90% of words correctly: instructional- can read/understand between 90-95% of text; independent- reads/understands at least 95-100% of text.
refers to the pitch, loudness, tempo, and rhythm of language. (the meaning of a written sentence, punctuation)
Alphabetic knowlege
knowledge of letter names and shapes; acquired in a sequence that begins with letter names, then letter shapes, and finally letter sounds. Instruction should be informal, but planned, and should include activities in which children have many opportunities to see, play with, and compare letters and learn to identify, name and write both upper case and lower case versions of the letters.
word families
groups of words that have the same ending soudn (rime) but a different beginning sound (onset), such as can, man, fan.
fluent reading
ability to read quickly, accurately, smoothly, and with expression. (ability to make use of prosodic cues) (is a dimension of oral reading)
fictional play; plot is carried by the dialogue.
narrative texts
those that relate a story or sequence of events

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