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World History - First Semester Review

Book: World History: Patterns of Interaction by McDougal Littel

If you attend Adlai E. Stevenson High School in Lincolshire Il, this is the review guide in preparation for the first semester of World History. Good Luck! :)


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Effects of the Spread of Islam
Increased trade and military conflict
Bantu-Speaking Peoples
the speakers of a related group of languages who, beginning 2000 years ago, migrated from West Africa into most of the southern half of Africa
man, according to the Torah, who led Hebrews out of Egyptian slavery
Manor System
Economic system in Medieval times by which a knight allowed peasants to farm land on his estate in return for food or other payment
a powerful ancient city in Greece that vauled fierce warriors, and had an excellent army
common language
in feudal Japan, a supreme military general who commanded the Samurai in the name of the emperor
primary source
a document, speech, or other sort of evidence written, created or otherwise produced during the time of study
religion of the Hebrews
Hellenistic Culture
A blending of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian influences.
city in the Indus valley, historically renowned for its sophisticated city planning
Chandra Gupta
the ruler of the Gupta Empire (A.D. 320)
an ancient African city located on one of the tributaries in West Africa
a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused oh human potential and achievements
Bubonic Plague
a deadly disease that spread across Asia & Europe in the mid 14th century, killing millions of people
one of the greatest of the ancient Athenian philosophers who studied under Plato and applied the laws of math & science using logic
a political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king in exchange for their loyalty, military service and protection of the people who live on the land
Julius Caesar
Roman general who was a strong leader and genuis at military strategy. He ended a civil war after the fall of the republic, took control in 60 B.C. through military force, and formed the First Triumvirate
Sahara Desert
the world's largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa
Fall of Rome
476 A.D. caused by numerous political, social, economic, and military factors to this event include: military interference in politics, civil war and unrest, moving the capital and division of the empire, low confidence, disloyalty, contrast between rich and poor, poor harvests, gold and silver drain, inflation, and threat of attack; immediate causes were pressure from Huns, invasion by Germanic tribes and by Huns, sack of Rome, and conquest by invaders
secondary source
a secondhand accout about people, events, topics or places that is based on what some other writer experienced
Golden Age of Athens
a period of growth in ancient Athens in intellectual & and artistic learning, including drama, sculpture, poetry, philosophy, architecture, & science
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad. (represent the minority of Muslim followers in the world)
The Twelve Tables
the first Roman written laws that established that all free citizens had a right to the protection of the law.
Heian Dyansty
period of highly refined court society in Japan (794 - 1185 A.D.) which enforced strict rules and etiquette
Gengis Khan
(1162 - 1217 A.D.) the universal leader of the Mongol clans and a brilliant military leader/organier/strategist who created the largest unified land empire in history.
Byzantine Empire
The name of the Eastern Roman Empire after the wetern half collapesed. Capitol: Constantinople (initially called Byzantium). Language: Greek Uniform Code: Justinian code (collapsed in 1453)
a collection of religious beliefs slowl developed over a long period of time by Hindus in India
The Spread of Islam
The rightly guided Caliphs took power after the death of Muhammad and conquered the entire Arabian Peninsula under the name of Islam.
Agricultural Revolution (A.K.A. Neolithic Revolution)
the major changes in human life caused by the beginnings of farming that is by people's shift from food gathering to food producing
mandate of heaven
in Chinese history, the divine approval of the gods. This was thought to be the basis of royal authority. (A.K.A "will of god")
Magna Carta
"Great Charter" a document guarenteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John in A.D. 1215
The Five Pillars of Islam
The duties to be a Muslim which include belief in one God, praying five times a day, giving alms to the poor, fasting during Ramadan, and the Hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca.
dynastic cycle
the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties
in ancient Rome, one of the common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up most of the population
Printing Press
invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; a printer could now produce hundereds of copies of a single work; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects
Cheng-Ho (A.K.A. Zhang-Hi)
Chinese navy general who traveled to Europe seven times to spread the ideologies and knowledge of the Chinese
a temple tower of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians, having the form of a terraced pyramid of successively receding stories used as a place of worship
Kublai Khan
the grandson of Gengish Khan, became great Khan in 1260 A.D. and in 1267 A.D. conquered all of China and founded the Yuan Dynasty
Fertile Crescent
an arch of rich farmland in Southwest Asia, between the Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea
Columbian Exchange
the global transfer of plants, animals, & diseases that occurred during the European colonization of the Americas
cultural diffusion
the spreading of ideas or products from one culture to another
Roman statesman and adopted son of Julius Caesar who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC. Ruled during the Pax Romana after forming the 2nd Triumvirate
expeditions in which medieval Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy land (Jerusalem) from the Muslims
Sunni - Shia Split
emerged after the Ummayyads came to power
a philosoply based on the teachings of Chinese thinker Confucius who believed that social order, harmony and good government could be restored in China if society were organized in 5 basic relationships.
Chandragupta Maurya
founded the Mauryan Empire in 321 B.C. which unified Northern India
Peloponnesian War
a war, lasting from 431 to 404 B.C. in which Athens and its allies were defeated by the league centered on Sparta
English Legal System
an early form of a modern, Democratic, centralized government in England
The Courtier
by Baldassare Castiglione. They taught how to become a "Renaissance man"; A young man, said Castiglione, should be charming, witty, and well educated in the classics. He should dance, sing, play music, and write poetry. Upper-class women also should know the classics and be charming.
a belief in many gods
epic story
long narrative peoms celebrating the deeds of legendary or traditional heroes
A southeast Asian Empire centered in what is now Cambodia that reached its peak of power in 1200 A.D.
a statesman of Florence who advocated a strong central government (1469-1527 A.D.), preaching "the ends justify the means"
in ancient Rome, a memeber of the wealthy, privelaged upper class
Florentine sculptor and painter and architect who is most famous for portraying the Human Body in art
Pax Romana
a period of peace & prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
a philosophy based in the ideas of Chinese thinker Laozi, who taught that people should be guided by a universal force called the Dao (the way)
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, engineer, scientist and architect
the early Native American peoples who lived in the American Southwest
The Four Noble Truths of Buddhism
1.) Life is filled with suffering and sorrow. 2.) The cause of all suffering is people's selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of this world. 3). The way to end all suffering is to end all desires. 4.) The way to overcome such desires and attain enlightenment is to follow the middle way between desires and self denial.
a renaissance spirit interested in worldly matters rather than spiritual ones. Concerned about here & now
the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge the first four caliphs as the rightful successors of Muhammad. (represent the majority of Muslim followers in the world)
ancient Athenian philosopher and student of Socrates who believed that the ideal society was ruled by of a philosopher-king and was not a democracy.
exposed during Ice Age, land bridge spanning 600 miles between Siberia and Alaska, over which the earliest Americans are believed to have migrated from Asian into the Americas
a tall reed that grows in the Nile delta and was used by the Ancient Egyptians to make a paper-like material to write on.
Great Zimbabwe
a powerful Southeast African city established by the Shona people that became the economic, political and religous center of its empire,
a river that flows northward from the highlands of East Africa to the Meditteranean sea, making it the longest river on earth. Ancient Egypt and several other African civilizations developed on the banks of this river.
Italian Renaissance man who was most famous for his use of perspective and paintings of Madonna & child
an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
the largest religion in the world with around 2 billion followers and based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ
language spoken by the Aryans, an early Indo-European tribe in India
Athenian statesman, politician, speaker, and general whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator who discovered the New World in the service of Spain while looking for a route to China (1451-1506 A.D.)
3 Fields System
a System of farming developed in medieval Europe in which farmland was divided into 3 fields of equal size and each of these were successively planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king
ancient Athenian philosopher who believed that absolute standards did exist for truth and justice. He also encouraged questioning.
Kingdom of Aksum
an African Kingdom in what is now Ethiopia and Ertrea that reached the height of its power in the fourh century A.D. largely Christian
the last prophet in the religion of Islam. Believed to be the core founder of the religion. Messenger of Allah to spread God
a government in which the ruler has unlimited power & uses it in an arbritary manner
a powerful ancient city in Greece that headed the Delian league, vauled learning and the arts, and had an excellent navy
Tigris & Euphrates
two rivers that flow from the mountains of modern day Turkey, southeastward, through Syria & Iraq, and into the Persian Gulf. These provided the basis for civilization in ancient Mesopotamia
Atlantic slave trade
the buying, transporting, & selling of Africans for work in the Americas
Baldassare Castiglione
author of "The Book of the Courtier"
Common Law
a unified body of law formed from rulings of England's royal judges that serves as the basis for law in many English - speaking countries today, including the United States
a form of government in which power is in the hands of representatives and leaders are elected by the people.
a system of writing with wedge shaped symbols, invented by the Sumerians around 3000 B.C.
Alexander the Great
King of Macedon (Ancient Greece), and one of the most successful military commanders in history. He conquered most of the Greeks and almost all land from there to India (336-300 B.C.).
a political unit in which a number of peoples or countries are ruled by a single ruler
Justinian's Code
the body of Roman civil law collected and organized by the order of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian around A.D. 534
the earliest known Meso American civilizations which flourished around 1200 B.C. & influenced later societies throughout the region
Eastern Orthodox Church
On of the churches that developed after political conflicts and differences in belief caused by a split in the Christian church in 1054. This church was found in the Byzantine Empire.
Egyptian god of the dead
the holy book of Islam
a body of representatives that makes laws for a nation
Marco Polo
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324 A.D.), studying the life and ways of their people.
a belief in a single god
Empire of Mali
a West African empire located on the edge of the Sahara that flourished in the fourth century A.D.
city in the Indus valley, historically renowned for its extensive and modern-looking plumbing systems
Teachings of Jesus
turn the other cheek, repent, forgive, one god, Jesus is the son of god, and the Kingdom of god is in heaven
ancient Greek epic poet who is believed to have written the Iliad and the Odyssey (circa 850 BC)
Great Wall of China
a fortification 1,500 miles long built across northern China in the 3rd century BC by Shi Huangdi to unify China and protect it from the northern Mongols
Roman Contributions
Greco-Roman Culture, areas of government, philosophy & the fine arts, Latin Language, Architecture (aqueducts, archs, columns, and bridges)
a form of culture characterized by cities, specialized workers, complex institutions, record keeping & advanced technology
Koryu Dynasty
ruled Korea (935 - 1392 A.D.) after modeling themselves after the Chinese with a centralized government. Its people were conquered and oppressed by the Mongols and their suffocating tributes
Greek Architecture
believed that architecture should have harmony, symmetry, natural ratios and proportions
a region of modern day Iraq that contained several ancient cities that had highly sophisticated civilizations (300 B.C.)
Iron Age
the development of iron tools and weapons, starting in West Africa around 500 B.C.
Empire of Ghana
a West African Kingdom that grew rich from taxing and controlling trade and established an empire in the 9th to 11th centuries A.D.
Kalahari Desert
a desert in southwestern Africa - largely Botswana
Hammurabi's Code
first set of universal laws written down by the Babylonian Emperor, Hammurabi, with punishments focused around the principle of retaliation (around 1775 B.C.)
a king of ancient Egypt, considered as god as well as a political & military leader
Fall of Constantinople
Finally overcome by the Ottoman turks in 1453 after constant attack by Germanic/European tribes, Persians and Muslims
the Spanish soldiers/explorers and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century
Song Dynasty
1127 - 1279 A.D. Era of Chinese prosperity, Innovation, Agriculture, trade, and Foerign Contact

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