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World History Exam


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Highly detailed system of Ottoman administrative law that jurists developed to deal with matters not treated in the religious law of Islam.
Atlantic System
New system of trade and expansion that linked Europe, Africa, and the Americas. It emerged in the wake of European voyages across the Atlantic Ocean.
Gold Coast
Name that European mariners and merchants gave to that part of West Africa from which gold was exported. This area was conquered by the British in the nineteenth century and became the British colony of the Gold Coast.
Fur Trade
The trading of animal pelts (especially beaver skins) by Indians for European goods in North America.
Eight-legged essay
Highly structured essay form with eight parts, required on Chinese civil service examinations
Religion headed by the pope; worship is centered in the gospel of Jesus Christ and the sacraments.
Koprulu Reforms
Named after two grand viziers who revitalized the Ottoman empire through administrative and budget trimming, and rebuilding of the military in the seventeenth century.
Song Dynasty
This dynasty took over the mandate of heaven for three centuries starting in 976 CE. It was an era of many economic and political successes, but they eventually lost northern China to nomadic tribes.
The Spanish reconquest of territories lost to the Islamic Empire, beginning with Toledo in 1061.
The Moche
At the height of the Chimu Empire, the Moche people extended their power over several valleys in what is now modern-day Peru, and their wealth grew as well.
Secluded women's quarters in Muslim households.
Movement to counter the spread of the Reformation; initiated by the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent in 1545.
Topkapi Palace
Political headquarters of the Ottoman Empire, it was located in Istanbul.
Supposedly Japanese pirates, many of these thieves were actually Chinese subjects of the Ming dynasty.
Delhi Sultanate
The Turkish regime of northern India, which lasted from 1206 to 1526.
Mandate of Heaven
Ideology established by Zhou dynasts to communicate the moral transfer of power. Originally a pact between the Zhou people and their supreme god, it evolved in the first century BCE into Chinese political doctrine.
Seven Years' War (1756-1763)
Worldwide war that ended when Prussia defeated Austria, establishing itself as a European power, and when Britain gained control of India and many of France's colonies through the Treaty of Paris. It is known as the French and Indian War in the United States
A system instituted in medieval Europe after the collapse of the Carolingian Empire (814 CE) whereby each peasant was under the authority of a lord.
Chinese merchant guild that traded with Europeans under the Qing dynasty.
Ruling lords who commanded private armies in pre-Meiji Japan.
Han Chinese
Inhabitants of China proper who considered others to be outsiders. They felt that they were the only authentic Chinese.
Trusty seafaring vessels used in the South China Seas after 1000 CE. These helped make shipping by sea less dangerous.
Sailing vessel suited for nosing in and out of estuaries and navigating in waters with unpredictable currents and winds.
Mixed-blood offspring of Spanish settlers and Indian natives.
Spanish military leaders who led the conquest of the New World in the sixteenth century.
Heian Period
The period from 794 to 1185, during which began the pattern of regents ruling Japan in the name of the sacred emperor.
Sufi brotherhoods
Mystics within Islam who were responsible for the expansion of Islam into many regions of the world.
Laws of Islam that regulate the spiritual and secular actions of Muslims.
This term referred to "outsiders" or non- Chinese people—Mongols, Tanguts, Khitan, Jurchen, Muslims, Tibetans, Persians, Turks, Nestorians, Jews, and Armenians—who became a new ruling elite over a Han majority population in the late thirteenth century.
Japanese warriors who made up the private armies of Japanese daimyos.
Religious order founded by Ignatius Loyola to counter the inroads of the Protestant Reformation; the Jesuits were active in politics, education, and missionary work.
Forbidden City
The palace city of the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Powerful slave trade institution that organized the supply and purchase of slaves inland from the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa.
Tabula Rasa
Term used by John Locke to describes man's mind before he had begun to acquire ideas as a result of experience; French for "clean slate."
By 1000, the Toltecs had filled the political vacuum created by the decline of the city of Teotihuacan.
Followers of religions, other than Islam, that were permitted by Ottoman law: Armenian Christians, Greek Orthodox Christians, and Jews.
Ship used on open bodies of water, such as the Mediterranean.
Companies of men who transported and traded goods along overland routes in North Africa and central Asia; large caravans consisted of 600-1,000 camels and as many as 400 men.
System of taking non-Muslim children in place of taxes in order to educate them in Ottoman Muslim ways and prepare them for service in the sultan's bureaucracy.
An Islamic political leader. In the Ottoman Empire, the sultan combined a warrior ethos with an unwavering devotion to Islam
French Protestants who endured severe persecution in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Traditional title of Persian rulers.
Dutch learning
Broad term for European teachings that were strictly regulated by the shoguns inside Japan.
Sack of Constantinople
In 1204 Frankish armies went on a rampage and sacked the capital city of Constantinople.
Treaty of Tordesillas
(1494) Treaty in which the pope decreed that the non-European world would be divided into spheres of trade and missionization between Spain and Portugal.
Archaic tax system of the Mughal empire where decentralized lords collected tribute for the emperor.
Beginning at the end of the twelfth century, this term denoted scholars who came together, first in Paris. They formed a universitas, a term borrowed from the merchant communities, where it denoted the equivalent of the modern "union."
Gunpowder Empires
Muslim empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and the Mughals that employed cannonry and gunpowder to advance their military causes.
Mongol-founded dynasty in thirteenth-century Persia.
The Silver Islands
Term used by European merchants in the sixteenth century to refer to Japan, because of its substantial trade in silver with China.
An Arabic word meaning, "Frank" that was used to describe Crusaders.
Asante State
Located in present-day Ghana, this state was founded by the Asantes at the end of the seventeenth century. It grew in power in the next century because of its access to gold and its involvement in the slave trade.
Grand Canal
Created in 486 BCE, this was a thousand-mile-long connector between the Yellow and Yangzi rivers, linking the north and south, respectively.
Hagia Sophia
The largest house of worship in all of Christendom located in Constantinople and turned into a Muslim house of worship when Constantinople fell to Ottoman forces in 1453.
Chimu Empire
South America's first empire, it developed during the first century of the second millennium in the Moche Valley on the Pacific Ocean.
Religious and political movement in sixteenth-century Europe that led to the breakaway of Protestant groups from the Catholic Church.
A commercial center for regional and long-distance trade in North America. Its hinterlands produced staples for urban consumers. In return, its crafts were exported inland by porters and to North American markets in canoes.
Minority religious communities of the Ottoman empire.
Experts on Muslim religious law.
Judges in the Ottoman Empire
Ancient deity and legendary ruler of Native American peoples living in Mexico.
Yuan Dynasty
After the defeat of the Song, the Mongols established this dynasty, which was strong from 1280 to 1386 CE; its capital was at Dadu, or modern-day Beijing.
Special tax that non-Muslims were obligated to pay to their Islamic rulers in return for which they were given security of life and property and granted cultural autonomy.
(1358) French peasant revolt in defiance of feudal restrictions.
Tale of Genji
Written by Lady Murasaki, a Japanese work that gives vivid accounts of Heian court life; Japan's first novel (early eleventh century).
Native Learning
Japanese movement to promote nativist intellectual traditions and the celebration of Japanese texts.
Term for any peoples who were considered "cultural outsiders." This was the name given by Greeks to any peoples who were non-Greek speakers.
A Mesoamerican society of the 1400s; these people were enemies of the powerful Aztec empire.
Term meaning "rebirth" that historians use to characterize the expanded cultural production of European nations between 1430 and 1550. Emphasized a break from the church-centered medieval world and a new concept of humankind as the center of the world.
In the late eleventh century, western Europeans launched the wave of attacks called the Crusades. The First Crusade began in 1095, when Pope Urban II appealed to the warrior nobility of France to free Jerusalem from Muslim rule. Four subsequent Crusades were fought over the next two centuries.
Trading stations at the borders between communities, which made change possible among many different partners. Long-distance traders could also replenish their supplies at these stations.
Mixed-blood offspring of Spanish settlers and Indian natives.
Theater performance that combined song, dance, and skillful staging to dramatize conflicts between duty and passion in Tokogawa, Japan.
European social group that came into existence during the bubonic plague in the fourteenth century; they believed that the plague was the wrath of God.
In 1300 CE, Genoa and Venice were two nodes of commerce linking Europe, Africa, and Asia. Genoese ships linked the Mediterranean to the coast of Flanders through consistent routes along the Atlantic coasts of Spain, Portugal, and France.
Jewish and Muslim converts to Christianity in the Iberian peninsula and the New World.
This city and former provincial seaport became the political center of the Chinese people in their ongoing struggles with northern steppe nomads. It was also one of China's gateways to the rest of the world by way of the South China Sea.
Belief that a country's wealth and power was based on a favorable balance of trade (more exports and imports) and the accumulation of precious metals.
From 1192 to 1333, the Kamakura shoguns were generalissimos who served as military "protectors" of the ruler in the city of Heian.
Russian word derived from the Latin "Caesar" to refer to the Russian ruler of Kiev, and eventually to all rulers in Russia.
One of the two main branches of Islam. Shiites recognize Ali, the fourth caliph, and his descendants as rightful rulers of the Islamic world; practiced in the Safavid empire.
Homo sapiens
Term defined by Linnaeus in 1737 and commonly used to refer to human beings. During the Enlightenment, many thinkers believed that the human species was divided into five subgroups, or races, identified by a combination of physical characteristics, including skin pigmentation and social qualities.
Inns constructed along major trade routes that accommodated large numbers of traders, their animals, and their wares.
Corps of infantry soldiers recruited as children from the Christian provinces of the Ottoman Empire and brought up with intense loyalty to the Ottoman state and its sultan. The Ottoman sultan used these forces to clip local autonomy and to serve as his personal bodyguards.
Invisible Hand
Described in Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations, the idea that the operations of a free market would produce economic efficiency and economic benefits for all.
Red Turbans
Diverse religious movement in China during the fourteenth century that spread the belief that the world was drawing to an end as Mongol rule was collapsing.
After the eleventh century, Kiev became one of the greatest cities of Europe. It was built to be a small-scale Constantinople on the Dnieper
Black Death
Great epidemic of the bubonic plague that ravaged Europe, East Asia, and North Africa in the fourteenth century, killing large numbers, including perhaps as many as one-third of the European population.
Russian translation, similar to the German kaiser, for the Roman title "caesar" (emperor), a title claimed by the rulers of medieval Muscovy and then the Russian empire.
Great League of Peace and Power
Iroquois Indian alliance of North America, which united previously warring communities.
Bubonic plague
Acute infectious disease caused by a bacterium that is transmitted to humans by flees from infected rats. It ravaged Europe and parts of Asia in the fourteenth century. Sometimes referred to as the "black death."
Examination System
Examinations that were open to most males and used to recruit officials and bureaucrats in imperial China.
Little Europes
Between 1100 and 1200 CE, these were urban landscapes comprised of castles, churches, and towns in what are today Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and the Baltic States.
Counselors and other officials to the royal family in African kingships. They were also responsible for the preservation and transmission of oral histories and repositories of knowledge.
Dutch East India Company (1600-1858)
British charter company created to outperform Portuguese and Spanish traders in the Far East; in the eighteenth century the company became, in effect, the ruler of a large part of India.
Bureaucrats of the Ottoman Empire.
Church of England
The established form of Christianity in England dating from the sixteenth century.
No drama
Masked theater favored by Japanese bureaucrats and regional lords during the Tokogawa period.
Grants from European Spanish governors to control the labor services of colonized people.
Taj Mahal
Royal palace of the Mughal empire, built by Shah Jahan in the seventeenth century as homage to his wife.
By 1040, the first gunpowder recipes were being written down. Over the next 200 years, Song entrepreneurs invented several incendiary devices and techniques for controlling explosions.
Kingdom of Jerusalem
What Crusaders set out to liberate when they launched their attack
Northwest passage
Long-sought marine passageway between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
Dutch shipping vessels that could carry heavy bulky cargo with relatively small crews.
Division of Christianity that emerged in sixteenth-century Western Europe at the time of the Reformation. It focused on individual spiritual needs and struck down the social authority of the papacy and the Catholic clergy.
System of taking non-Muslim children in place of taxes in order to educate them in Ottoman Muslim ways and prepare them for service in the sultan's bureaucracy.
Archaic term for the military ruler of Japan.
Sacred kingships
Institution that marked the centralized politics of West Africa. The inhabitants of these kingships believed that their kings were descendants of the gods.

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