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5.3,5.4, 5.5 Historical geography

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Terms

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Eratosthenes
director of the alexandrian library who tried to calculate earth's size by geometry
Aristophanes
wrote the first great comedies, including the birds and lysistrata
Syracuse
Sparta's wealthiest allie
Philip II
king of macedonia 359-336 B.C. who was a brilliant general and ruthless politician that used heavy phalanx formations and fast-moving cavalry
338 b.c.
when athens and thebes joined forces to fight philip
philip II
King of Macedonia, father of Alexander the Great
the republic
Plato's book about his vision of a perfectly governed socitey
philosophers
lovers of wisdom
persepolis
What persian capital burned to the ground with a mysterious purpose?
battle of chaeronea
battle where the macedonians soundly beat the greeks and ended their overall independence
11,000 miles
How far did Alexander travel during his 11 years of conquering?
thucydides
greatest historian of the classical age who believed that certain types of events and political situations recur over time
oresteia
three play series based on the family of Agamemnon, the mycenean king who commanded the greeks at troy-written by Aeschylus
statue of nike of samothrace
bronze statue created after the colossus of rhodes made to commemorate a greek naval victory in 203 b.c.
in the West
Where were the first greek theaters build?
lysistrata
comedy that portrayed the women of athens forcing their husbands to end the peloponnesian war
399 B.C.
When was socrates condemned to death?
Hellenistic culture
relating to the civilization, art, science, and literature of the Greek world from the reign of Alexander the Great to the late second century B.C.
Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides
Three notable greek dramatists who wrote tragedies
tragedy
serious drama about common themes such as love, hate, war, or betrayal with a sad ending. Featured a main character or a tragic hero with an extraordinary gift or ability
Alexandria
City in Egypt founded by Alexander the Great, center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization
Arian
Greek historian who suggested that fire was set in revenge for the persian burning athens
sophists
questioned people's unexamined beliefs and ideas about justice and other traditional values
461 to 429 B.C
time of pericles domination (Age of pericles)
alexander the great
Conquered and ruled an empire stretching from Macedonia to the Indus Valley
guagemela
small village near the ruins of ancient ninevah
macedonia
an ancient kingdom north of greece, whose ruler philip II conquered Greece in 338 B.C.
Euclid
Greek Mathematician (Father of Geometry) who taught in Alexandria
classical art
The art of ancient Greece and Rome, in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized.
431 B.C
When did Sparta declare war on Athens?
Phidias
Sculptor of the parthenon
epicurus
man who founded the school of thought called epicureanism and taught that gods who had no interest in humans ruled the universe
Anatolia
In 344 B.C. Alexander invadeded and conquered what?
He launched a massive phalanx attack followed by a calvary charge to crumble the persian lines
What did Alexander do to fight the 250,000 persian men at Gaugmela?
stoics
those who proposed that people should live virtuous lives in harmony with the will of god or the natural laws that god established to run the universe
socrates
philosopher who believed the absolute standards did exist for truth and justice and encouraged greeks to go farther and question themselves
one of his own provincial governors
who murdered darius III?
pericles' strategy
To avoid land battles with the spartan army and wait for an opportunity to strike sparta and its allies on the sea
the alexandrian library
A collection of half a million papyrus scrolls that included many of the masterpieces of ancient literature
studying events and situations that recur over time
What did Thucydides believe would aid in understanding the present?
Plato
student of socrates whose writings domiated philosophic thought in europe for nearly 1,500 years
demosthenes
athenian orator who tried to warn the greeks of the threat philip and his army posed and urged to unite them against philip
macedonia
the ancient kingdom of Philip II and Alexander the Great in the southeastern Balkans
413 B.C.
Crushing Defeat of Athens after their attempt at Syracuse
Koine
the popular spoken language used in hellenistic cities and came from the greek word "common"
Hipparchus
a man who lived inalexandria and charted the position of 850 stars
epicurean
people who believed that the only real objects were those that the five senses perceived and proposed that main goal of humans was to achieve harmony of the body and mind
natural works of old age, wrinkles, and ordinary features
description of hellenistic sculptures
404 B.c.
When did Athenian allies surrender and lose their empire, power, and wealth for good?
Elements
book written by euclid that contained 465 carefully pressed geometry propositions and proofs
1. to strengthen athenian democracy 2. to hold and strengthen the empire 3. to glorify athens
the three goals of pericles
iliad
the epic tale of the heroic deeds performed by achilles during the trojan war
archimedes
Scientist from Syracuse, estimated the value of pi, invented the screw, and explained the law of the lever and pulley
415 B.C.
When did Athens send a fleet carrying 20,000 soldiers to Sicily to destroy syracuse
By third century B.C.
When did Alexandria become an international community?
343 B.C.
When did Aristotle accept the king's invitation to tutor the 13 year old prince Alexander the great
Athena
Who was the parthenon built for?
human desires, power, and wealth-the dangerous distractions
What did stoics preach?
Justice, leadership, and duties owed to the gods
What were greek plays about?
Delian League
Organized by Athens that was an alliance between a group of city-states
peloponnesian war
war between Sparta and Athens
Aristarchus
a man of Samos who reached the scientific conclusion that the sun was at least 300 times larger than earth and earth and other planets revolved around the sun
pericles
a wise and able statesman, politician, speaker, and general that led Athens during much of its golden age
Parthenon
A masterpiece of architectural design and craftsmanship witha 23,000 sq ft building
graceful, strong, and perfectly formed. faces showed no joy and anger-only serenity. portraying ideal beauty
Description of sculptures during the golden age
aristotle
student of plato-questioned the nature of the world and of human belief, thought, and knowledge.
6000 thebes, with survivors sold into slavery
How many thebes were killed once alexander destroyed the city?
332 B.C.
When did alexander conquer egypt and become pharaoh?
colossus of rhodes
Largest known Hellenistic statues, one of the wonders of the ancient world hit by an earthquake in 225 b.c.
Babylon, Susa, Persepolis
What other territories did Alexander conquer after Persia?
Alexander's tomb
a lighthouse called the Pharos that soared over 350 ft high and stood over the Alexandria harbor
Protagoras
philosopher who is one of the most famous sophists who questioned the existence of traditional greek gods
Ptolemy became governor of egypt, seleucus took most of the persian empire, and Antignous became king of Macedonia
What were Alexander's empires divided to?
326 B.C.
When did Alexander reach the indus valley?
oedipus the king and antigone
Two plays written by sophocles
150 B.c.
when did the hellenistic world decline?
Ptolemy
An alexandrian renowned astronomer who incorrectly placed earth at the center of the solar system-accepted for the next 14 centuries
430 B.C. (ish)
When did the plague come down on Athens?
zeno
greek philosopher who founded the school of philosophy called stoicism
Pericles
Who stole Delian League money for a strong Athenian navy and beautiful Athens?
to organize and unify his empire, conquer arabia
What were alexander's future plans?
Euripides
Who wrote Medea and often featured strong women in his works?
babylon
Where did Alexander and his army reach in the spring of 323 b.c.?
darius III
Persian king who lost his empire to Alexander the Great
force pump, pneumatic machines, and steam engines
machines later built by hellenistic scientists from archimedes ideas
herodotus
greek who lived in athens for a time, pioneered the accurate reporting of events and wrote a book on the persian wars
The seleucid kingdom
What did Selecus's empire became known as?
Adopted persian dress and custom, married a persian woman, and included persians and other peoples in his army
What did alexander do to become more persian?
citizens falling into three classes: farmers, artisans, and warriors. The person with the greates insight and intelligence was philosopher-king
What did Plato's perfect society include?
comedy
scenes filled with slapstick situations and crude humor that made fun of politics, respected people, and ideas at the time.
increased the number of public officials with paid salaries and introducing direct democracy
What did pericles do to strengthen Athenian democracy?
surprised them with a weak point in the persian lines
What did Alexander do the darius III and the persians because he was outnumbered?
421 B.C.
When did Sparta and Athens form a truce?

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