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History Ch. 4-6


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Asiatic invaders who attacked the Egyptians with chariots.
Queen Ahhotep
took over when her husband died. Helped drive out Hyksos.
pharoah who defeated the Hyksos and helped drive the out.
New Kingdom
the period of ancient Egyptian history that followed the overthrow of the Hyksos rulers.
declared herself pharoah becuase her son was too young. She encouraged trade over war.
Thutmose III
Hatshepsut's son who may have killed her. Took over the throne and was a very warlike ruler. Greatly expanded the empire.
a region of Africa that straddled the upper Nile River.
Ramses II
made a treaty with a Hittite king. Was one of the greatest builders of all time. Also expanded the empire through conquest.
an ancient Nubian kingdom whose rulers controlled Egypt.
a Kushite king who overthrew the Libyan dynasty in Egypt. He united the entire Nile Valley. He erected a monument to remember his victory. He created Egypt's 25th dynasty.
center of the Kush dynasty that was known for its manufacture of iron weapons/tools.
a SW Asian kingdom that controlled a large empire (the Assyrian Empire).
an Assyrian king who bragged that he destroyed 89 cities and 820 villages and burned Babylon, killing most Babylonians. Set capital at Nineveh.
Assyria's capital, set my Sennacherib. It was the largest city of its day.
Assyrian king who collected more than 20,000 clay tablets located in the library of Nineveh.
a SW Asian people who helped to destroy the Assyrian Empire.
a SW Asian people who helped to destroy the Assyrian Empire. They moved the capital to Babylon.
a Chaldean king who restored Babylon. He created the haning garden of Babylon, 1 of the 7 wonders of the ancient world.
Persian king who began to conquer many neighboring kingdoms. He was a military genius and greatly expanded his empire. He was known for his method of governing. He was kind to the conquered people, sometimes adopting customs. He allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem.
son of Cyrus who expanded the Persian Empire by conquering Egypt. He, unlike his father, was cruel to conquered peoples.
a noble of the ruling dynasty who began as a bodyguard. Daris organized and expanded the empire. He brought peace to the empire and conquered many new lands. He was an excellent governor who installed satraps and created many new roads, like the Royal Road. He also introduced coined money.
a governor who ruled locally.
Royal Road
one of the most important roads created by Darius that ran from Susa to Sardis (Persia to Anatolia).
a Persian prophett who sought to answer why there was so much suffering and chaos. He taught that the earth is a battleground between good and evil. Zoroasterian religion believed in one god, Ahura Mazda. The religion still lives today and is very popular to those who are questioning.
China's most influential scholar. He believed that social order, harmony, and good government could be restored. He believed in 5 relationships (ruler-subject, father-son, husband-wife, older brother-younger brother, and friend-friend. Confucius formed Confucianism. Laid the groundwork for bureaucracy.
the ethical system formed by Confucius based on harmony and order. It contained 5 basic relationships, the practice of filial piety, how to govern wisely, and stressed education.
filial piety
respect for one's parents and ancestors.
a system of departments and agencies formed to carry out the work of government.
a Chinese thinker who believed only the natural order was important. He wrote the Dao De Jing and created the religion of Daoism.
religion formed by Laozi, a universal force "Dao" guides all things. Daoism was a search for knowledge and understanding of nature.
a religion created by Hanfeizi and Li Si, who rejected Daoism and Confucianism. Legalists believed that a ruler should provide rewards for good duties and severe punishments for bad deeds. They believed that a ruler should burn all writings that encourage criticism of government.
I Ching
a book of oracles that solved ethical or practical problems.
Yin and Yang
a concept that two powers together represented the natural rhythms of life. Yin = cold, dark, mysterious, Yang = warm, bright, hard, and clear.
Qin Dynasty
Chinese dynasty that replaced the Zhou Dynasty.
Shi Huangdi
"1st Emperor" Was the name assumed by the 1st Qin ruler. He destroyed invaders and expanded the empire and was determined to unify China. He crushed political oppositions and he introduced a policy to "strengthen the trunk and weaken the branches." Was hated for his book burning.
a government that has umlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner.
Great Wall of China
this wall was built by peasants who had to choice to work on the wall or die.
Greek geography
seas shaped Greek civilization. They didnt live on land but around sea. Sea travel and trade was important and mountains coverd 3/4 of their land. Land transportation and farming became very difficult.
Indo-Europeans who migrated from from Mycenae to Greece. Began sea trade after contact with Minoans.
influenced the Mycenaeans through sea trade, written language, art, and religion.
Trojan War
10 year war between Mycenaeans and Troy (in Anatolia).
moved into Greece after the Mycenean civilization collapsed. They were very unadvanced and had not wrriten records. During this time Greece lost a writing language.
a blind man who was the greatest storyteller. He composed epics during the Dorian period. Most famous work = Iliad.
narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds.
tradition stories. Conducted by Greeks about their gods. Through myths Greeks began to understand the mysteries of nature and the power of human passions.
a Greek city-state which was the fundamental political unit in ancient Greece.
the fortified hilltop where Greek citizens gathered to discuss city government.
a government form in which a single person (king) ruled.
a government ruled by a small group of noble, landowning families.
a government ruled by a few powerful people.
rulers, usually novles or other wealthy citizens, who seized control of the government and had absolute power.
a government ruled by the people.
Athenian democracy
1st-Draco took power and developed a legal code based on equality. 2nd-Solon created more far-reaching reforms and outlawed slavery. 3rd- Cleisthenes introduced further reforms by creating the Council of 500.
Athenian education
sons of wealth received education. They learned normal subjects, debating, logic, public speaking, and athletics, and when they aged they went onto military school. Girls were educated at home by their mothers.
peasants forced to stay on the land they worked.
Spartan government
Several branches: 1. Assembly (elected officials and voted on issues) 2. Council of Elders (proposed laws) 3. 5 Elected officials (carried out laws)
Spartan education
Boys education was focused on military training. Girls had some military training but also were taught at home by their mothers.
a military formation when foot soldiers stood side by side each holding a spear in 1 hand and a shield in the other.
Persian Wars
wars between Greece and the Persian Empire because the Persians conquered Ionia. The Persian fleet attacked Athenians at Marathon and the Persians fled due to the Greek phalanx.
a young runner chosen by the Athenians to race back to Athens to bring the news of Persian defeat. He ran 26 miles, delivered the news, and then died.
Darius the Great
the Persian king who was defeated by the Athenians in Marathon during the Persian Wars.
son of Darius the Great who assembled a large invasion against Athens. He marched easliy through Greeces but eventually met Spartan resistance, who were all killed. The Persians eventually lost the wars.
Delian League
an alliance formed by Greek city-states.
Effects of Persian War
1. new sense of confidence in Greeks 2. Athens led the Delian League 3. Athens enetered a golden age.
a wise Athenian statesman who was a skillful politician who had 3 goals : 1. to glorify Athens 2. to strengthen the empire 3. to strengthen democracy.
direct democracy
a form of government in which citizens rule directly.
classical art
art in which harmony, order, and proportion were emphasized.
a serious drama about love, hate, war, or betrayal.
comical drams filled with humor.
the greatest historian of the classical age who believed that certain types of events and political situations recur over time.
Peloponnesian War
the war between Athens and Sparta. Athens: stronger navy, strike from sea. Sparta: stronger navy, to force Athens to attack from land. Athens attacked at Sicily, but they were defeated. Sparta won.
"lovers of wisdom" Determined to seek the truth. Had 2 assumptions: 1.the universe is put together in an orderly way 2. people can understand laws through logic and reason.
one critic of the Sophists who believed that absolute standards existed for truth and justice. He encouraged Greeks to questions themselves. Brought to trial for corrupting the youth and neglecting gods. He always died by drinking poison.
Socrates' student who wrote down the conversations of Socrates. He wrote The Republic, in which he talked about the perfectly governed society and believed a society should be ruled by a philsopher-king.
Plato's student who questioned the nature of the world and of human belief. He invented a method for logical arguing and created the scientific method.
Philip II
king of Macedonia who wanted to take control of Greece and conquer Persia. He was a brilliant general and ruthless politician. He greatly expanded his empire as well. He eventually defeated Greece, and controlled that land. Never got to conquer Persia.
the kingdom located just north of Greece.
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II who was king who sought to accomplish his father's goals. He was a great ruler who learned well under Aristotle. Alexander did accomplish his fathers goals and ordered his army to charge right at Darius III. He marched to Egypt and was named pharoah. There he founded Alexandria. He then attacked Darius again, and conquered the Persian Empire. Alexander also burned Athens. Still wanted to expand his empire, but his soldiers wanted to return home and he agreed to. His battles also had a cultural impact.
Darius III
Persian king who raised a huge army against Alexander. Darius tried to offer Alexander a truce but he refused.
a culture blended from Egyptian, Persian, Indian, and Hellenic (Greek). Koine was the popular spoken language.
Egyptian city created by Alexander. Alexandria became the center of commerce for Hellenistic cultures. Had many sculptures, and the most famous part---the museum and library.
Hellenistic Astronomy
1. estimated the Sun's size. 2. Earth revolves around sun. 3. Calculated Earth's true size.
a highly regarded mathematician who taught in Alexandria. Wrote Elements.
school of philosphy created by Zeno. Proposed that people should lived lives of hamrony with the will of god. It taight the danger of human desires and wealth.
Hellenistic scientist who estimated the value of pi, explained the law of the lever, invented the Archimedes screw and the compound pulley.
school of thought created by Epicurus that taught that gods have no interest in humans and one should achieve harmony of body and mind.
Colossus of Rhodes
a bronze statue created on the island of Rhodes. It is 1 of 7 wonders of the ancient world.
a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders.
the wealthy landowners who held most of the power. They inherited their power and status.
the commoners who made up the majority of the population. They could not have government positions, but elected tribunes to keep government officials in check.
representatives elected by plebeians to protect the rights of the plebeians.
Twelve Tables
a written law code created by plebeians. It established the idea that all free citizens had a right to the protection of the law.
the part of the republic that resembled monarchy. Consuls were two officials that commanded the army and directed the government.
part of the republic that resembled aristrocracy. It had both legislative and administrative functions.
democratic part of republic. AKA Tribal Assembly. elected tribunes and made laws.
a leader with absolute power to make laws and commmand the army.
large military units made up of infantry and cavalry.
Roman treatment of conquered peoples.
1. made them citizens 2. gave them Roman rights 3. made them Roman allies.
Punic Wars
the long struggle between Rome and Carthage. 1st Punic War- for control of Sicily, Rome won. 2nd- Hannibal led those from Carthage and weakened the Romans, but Scipio defeated him. 3rd- Rome laid siege to Carthage and buried it to the ground.
a brilliant military strategist who wanted to avenge Carthage's earlier defeat and attacked the Romans during the Punic Wars.
Julius Caesar
military leader who was part of 1st triumverate. He was also named consul. He was a strong leader and military genius. He became governor of Gaul and took his army (from Gaul) and attacked Pompey and the senate appointed Caesar as dictator. He expanded the senate, granted citizenship to many people, created jobs, and expanded the empire.
a group of 3 rulers. 1st triumverate- Caesar, Crassus, Pompey. 2nd- Augustus, Lepidus, Mark Antony.
Octavian (Augustus)
Caesar's adopted son who was part of the 2nd triumverate. He became the unchallenged ruler of Rome and was basically the 1st Roman emperor. He stablizied the land, glorified Rome, set up a civil service, and created a government.
Pax Romana
"Roman peace," the period of peace (207 years) and prosperity in the Roman Empire. Aided in the spread of Christianity because it made travel and the exhanges of ideas safe.
born in Bethlehem in Judea. He began public ministry at age 30. He taught using many Jewish ideas, such as monotheism and the 10 Commandments. Jesus emphasized the importance of God. Jesus was crucified because he was defying Rome's authority.
12 men who were Jesus' disciples who wrote the Gospels.
Pontius Pilate
the Roman governor who said Jesus was defying the Roman authority and ordered Jesus to be crucified.
apostle who had enormous influence on the development of Christianity. He was a Jew who had never met Jesus and had a vision of Christ and spent the rest of his life spreading Christianity. He also wrote the Epostles and welcomed many new converts.
the dispersal of the Jews when they were driven from their homeland into exile.
Reasons for Growth of Christianity
because it 1. embraced all people 2. gave hope to powerless 3. appealed to those repelled by Rome 4. offered a personal relationship w/ God 5. promised eternal life after death.
gained control of the western empire and also controlled the east. He moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium. This led to a power shift from Rome (west) to the east.
a priest who supervised several local churches
an apostle who became the 1st bishop in Rome and was reportedly the 1st pope. Also he was called the "rock" on which the Christian Church was built.
the father or head of the Christian Church.
a drastic drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices.
Economic Collapse of Roman Empire
1. inflation 2. raised taxes 3. overworked soil 4. food shortages and disease spread---population declines.
Political Collapse of Roman Empire
1. soldiers became less loyal and disciplined 2. government recruited mercenaries---fought for money, has not loyalty 3. loyalty was lost in citizens.
a strong-willed army leader who was Roman emperor. We limited freedoms and was very strict. He doubled the army's size and controlled inflation. He believed the empire was too large and divided it into 2 parts: Greek-speaking East and Latin-speaking West.
city of Constantine. It was the new name of Byzantium, the new capital of the Roman Empire.
Mongol nomads who attacked the Germans and destroyed all in their path. The Germans entered Rome and Huns destroyed it. The West was destroyed by them.
a powerful chieftain who united the Huns for the 1st time.
Greco-Roman culture
the new culture created by mixing Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures.
Roman fine arts
1. beautiful and meaningful sculptures 2. mosaics 3. painting
a Roman town where the best examples of Roman painting are found.
Modern Roman Impact
1. art 2. literature 3. Latin 4. architecture 5. law
Roman poet who wrote the most famous work of Latin literature--the Aeneid.
a Roman historian who presented the facts accurately.
Latin Language
remained the language of the West and was the Roman Catholic Church's official language. Formed into French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian (Romanic languages).
Roman Architecture
impacted with the arch, dome, concrete, bridges, aqueducts, and roads.
Roman Law
modern impact with 1. equal treatment under law 2. innocent until proven guilty 3. burden of proof w/ accuser not accused 4. punishment only for actions, not thoughts 5. any law that was unreasonable could be set aside.

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