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History Chapter 13 Sec 1, 2, 4 Chapter 14 Sec 1


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Which American archaeologist uncovered the fabled lost city of the Incas? What was the name of this city? Where did he/she uncover it?
Hiram Bingham; Machu Picchu; Peruvian Andes
What is the vast portion of Africa south of the Sahara known as?
SubSaharan Africa
At what locations does the plateau rise more gently?
Liberia, Ghana, and the ivory Coast in Mozambique
Which African rivers are examples of rivers that are navigable only for relatively short distances?
Niger, Zaire (Congo), and the Zambezi
What desert is to the south of Africa? North?
Sahara; Kalahari
How much rain do the African tropical rain forests receive each year?
100 inches
What is a thick growth of plants found in a tropical rain forest wherever sunlight penetrates the dense umbrella of tall trees and reachest the forest floor?
a jungle
Which diseases are in the rain forests? What type of fly carries diseases?
malaria, yellow fever, sleeping sickness; tsetse fly
Which two mountains jut thousands of feet above the plateau in eastern Africa?
Mount Kenya and Mount Kilimanjaro
How many basins dent the plateau? How wide and deep are they?
5; 600 miles wide, 5,000 feet deep
Which geographic feature of SubSaharan Africa was formed thousands of years ago when a part of the plateau sank and now contains many long, narrow lakes?
the Great Rift Valley
What do you call a vast area of relatively dry grassland?
What is the name of the savanna immediately south of the Sahara that has unpredictable rainfall that often results in severe droughts?
the Sahel
What do you call scholars who study languages?
What is the term for the technique in which linguists use computers and mathematics to compare the roots of words and common vocabulary?
What is the name for the family of closely related languages spoken in many parts of Africa?
Where is the origin of the Bantu language?
the southeastern region of what is today Nigeria
How long ago did Bantu-speaking people began to migrate southward? To which modern countries did they migrate to?
2,000 years ago; Cameroon and gabon
What is the term for poems, songs, or stories passed by word of mouth from one generation to another?
oral traditions
Which language is spoken on the island of Madagascar?
the Malagasy language
What is the name for societies in which people trace their ancestors through their mothers rather than their fathers?
matrilineal societies
In a matrilineal society, from who did a boy inherit from rather than his father?
his mothers brother
What area lies along the Nile River?
Which powerful kingdom began in Nubia?
Whcih trading center of southern Nubia does Cush trace its roots to?
What was the capital of Cush?
Which people invaded Cush?
the Assyrians
What became the Cush capital after the Assyrians plundered Napata? How was this city important?
Meroe; it was one of the earliest centers of iron working in Africa
Which rival state ended the Cush civilization?
Which ruler of Axum defeated Cush and established a thriving throne?
King Ezana
Which religion did King Ezana convert to?
Which winds provided a reliable means of travel?
seasonal monsoons
Which unique African culture developed on the East African coast?
Which Bantu language has Arabic and Persian influences?
Which early city-states lie on Northern Africa?
Mogadishu, Lamu, Pate, and Malindi
Which northern city-state was the leading port alng the African coast and the most famous city-state?
Which famous Muslim traveler described Kilwa as one of the most beautiful and well-constructed towns in the world?
Ibn Battuta
Which people who immigrated onto the plateau land of what is today Zimbabwe, achieved control over the mining of gold and its shipment to the coast?
How many mine shafts were located, indicating the mining activities of the Karanga?
What was the largest and most famous of the Karanga people's fortresses?
Great Zimbabwe
How many large granite blocks were the thick walls of Great Zimbabwe made of?
What probably caused the decline of Great Zimbabwe?
the increase of people that couldn't be fed
Which important African kingdoms flourished in West Africa?
Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
Which Muslim historian wrote about trial by wood?
Which kingdom traced it's origin to which trading village situated in the southeastern part of modern what?
Ghana; Kumbi Saleh; Mauritania
Which people ended the kingdom of Ghana?
Berber tribes
Which kingdom followed the fall of Ghana?
Under which ruler did Mali reach its peak?
Mansa Musa
How many pilgrims and slaves came with Mansa Musa on a pilgrimage to Mecca? What did they bring with them?
60,000 pilgrims including 500 slaves; each slave carried a 4-pound bar of gold
What happened to the value of gold after Mansu Musa's visit to Mecca?
it floor rocketed
What was Mali's capital?
Which ruler of the region that broke away from Mali captured Tombouctou?
Sunni Ali
Which kingdom did Sunni Ali bring rise to?
What city was the kingdom of Songhai centered on?
Which people ended the Songhai kingdom?
the Moroccans
Which people in Mexico left giant stone heads and many objects made of jade?
the Olmecs
How much did each Olmec stone head weigh?
16-18 tons
The Olmecs worshiped a god represented by the image of a what?
What culture developed at about the same time as the Olmecs, also worshipped the jaguar, and was located on the highlands of Peru?
What ended the Chavin and Olmec cultures?
they mysteriously disappeared
Which was probably the most advanced culture of the Americans, who occupied most of what today are the natinos of Guatemala, Honduras, and Belize?
the Maya
What did the Maya build?
many steep pyramids
Which Mayan city had a huge pyramid? How tall was this pyramid and what was the area of its base?
the city of El Mirador; 18 stories tall, base about the size of three football fields
What ended the Mayan civilization?
a mysterious catastrophe that caused the population to decline sharply
What are some possible catastrophes that ended the Mayan civilization?
worn out soil, foreign invasion, peasant revolt
Which people invaded central Mexico from the south?
the Toltecs
What was the capital of the Toltecs?
How far down did the Toltecs spread their influence?
down to the Yucatan Peninsula
Which chief Mayan city was affected by the Toltec?
Chichen Itza
Who was the Toltec god?
What was Quetzalcoatl?
a feathered serpent
WHich group emerged out of the struggle for central Mexico?
the Aztecs
What kind of people were the Aztecs?
warriors, hunters and gatherers
What sign were the Aztecs told to look for in order to know where to settle?
a eagle sitting on a cactus and devouring a serpent
Where did the Aztecs finally see their sign?
Lake Texcoco
What city did the Aztec people build in Lake Texcoco, where they saw their sign?
the city of Tenochtitlan
How many people did Tenochtitlan have at its height?
What is the term for artificial islands on which people farm on, used by the Aztecs?
How many captives were sacrificed by the Aztecs on their pyramid altars at the height of their power?
Why did the Aztec civilization end?
surrounding people who paid tribute revolted, and foreign conquest
Which foreign conquers ended the Aztec civilization?
Spanish explorers
Which civilization was built at the same time as the Aztec civilization, only in the Andes Mountains of South America?
the Incas
What does "incas" mean?
"children of the sun"
What was the Incan capital? What was it known as?
Cuzco; "City of the Sun"
What is the name for the pack animals that carried goods in the Incan civilization?
What is the Incan language?
What is the term for a kind of knotted string used to assist the memory, used by the Incans?
What ended the Incan civilization?
the Spaniards (just as they did to the Aztecs)
Which river in Florence overflowed, endangering the city with the world's greatest store of Renaissance art and literature?
the Arno River
How many people lived in Florence?
What is the term for a philosophical and artistic movement? What is the term for the period in which philosophy and art flourished?
Renaissance, Renaissance
What were the most important cities of the Renaissance?
Florence, Rome, Venice, Milan, and Naples
Which family in Florence grew wealthy first as bankers and then as rulers of the city-state?
the Medici family
Which member of the Medici family became a great patron of the arts and wanted to make Florence the most glorious city in Europe? What was he known as?
Lorenzo Medici; "the Magnificent"
What are grammar, rhetoric, history, and poetry called?
the humanities
What were the people who specialized in the humanities called?
What did humanists belive?
people should know how things worked, education is important, people who live by contemplating things all the time don't always lead a meaningful life, people should become activly involved in practical affairs, existence was not only a preperation for life after death, but also a joy in itself, men and women were intelligent beings who could make their own decisions, and a person could be a poet, musician, scientist, and painter at the same time
Which person was among the first humanists and became famous as a scholar and a teacher?
Florentine Francesco Petrarch
Who did Petrarch address his sonnets to?
Laura, the imaginary ideal woman
What is the term for the study of the writings of the ancients, particularly the Romans?
classical education
Who wrote the famous essay that describes government not in terms of lofty ideals but as the author felt government actually worked? What was this essay called?
Niccolo Machiavelli; The Prince
According to The Prince, what should rulers consider more important: safety or honesty?
Which word describes people who use deceit and who have little regard for morality in their effort to get what they want?
What was the difference between Medieval and Renaissance paintings?
Renaissance paintings were more realistic
What technique did Renaissance painters use to make distant objects smaller than those in the foreground, and by arranging the objects in certain ways, an artist could creat the illusino of depth on flat canvas?
Which two painters pioneered the emphasis on realism?
Giotto and Masaccio
According to legend, what did Giotto's painting cause a spectator to do?
a fly in the painting looked so real, a spectator tried to brush it off
Which artist painted light and shadows to give the effect of depth in objects?
What was the period of the Renaissance in which Italian painters displayed genius called?
the High Renaissance
Who was an artist, musician, architect, mathematician, and scientist?
Leonardo da Vinci
What are two of Leonardo de Vinci's most famous paintings?
The Last Supper, Mona Lisa
Which artist drew paintings on the ceiling of which Chapel?
Michelangelo Buonarroti; the Sistine Chapel of the Vatican
Who did Michelangelo do sculptures of?
David and Moses
What did Michelangelo help design?
St. Peter's Basilica in Rome
Which painter was highered by the pope to help beautify the Vatican?
What painting did Raphael paint that depicts the great philosophers of classical Greece?
The School of Athens
Who did many of Raphael's paintings have representations of? What were these called?
the Virgin Mary; madonnas
Which painter spent most of his life in his native Venice?
Which painting of Titian portrayed a vivid sense of drama and is ntoed for its rich colors?
The Assumption of the Virgin
Who is believed to be the first European to use the movable type to print books?
Johann Gutenberg of Mainz, Germany
Which Dutch scholar was the greatest humanist of northern Europe?
Desiderius Erasmus
What was Erasmus's most famous book that ridiculed ignorance, superstition, and vice among the clergy and ordinary Christians?
In Praise of Folly
Who was Erasmus's friend who was a English humanist who took views similar to those of Erasmus?
Thomas More
Which book did More publish that criticized the society of his day by describing an imaginary ideal society?
What word means "an ideal place or society"?
Which playwright bvuilt masterpieces of poetic drama?
william Shakespeare
Which brothers who lived in Flanders paid great attention to detail in paintings? Name a painting that they paid attention to the details of.
Hubert and Jan van Eyck; The Adoration of the Lamb, the altar piece of the cathedral at Ghent
Which great Flemish artist loved the countryside and the peasants of his native Flanders, and painted lively scenes of village festivals and dances?
Pieter Brueghel the Elder
Which German artist was famous for his copper engravings and woodcuts and who became one of the first to see the possibilities of printed illustations in books?
Albrecht Durer
Which artist did most of his work in other countries and traveled throughout Europe to paint portraits of famous people?
Hans Holbien the Younger

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