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Greek philosophy review

greek philosophy terms and people to know

Terms

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mystery religions
cults that helped Greeks have hope of afterlife and spiritual mysteries answered
Ionic
have a base and curled capital- based on ratio of female measurements - female columns
Aristophanes
one the first comedic playwrights- attacked politicians/intellectuals
"Athenian"
red figure vase that shows seizing of Cassandra and murder of Priam; symbolizes athens after sack of the persians - identified with trojans
Empedocles
4 monarches- fire, water, air, earth; theory of pluralism -- attraction and repulsion
Aristotle
his ideas played a huge role in the development of western thought during the Middle Ages
Corinthian
have most ornate capital and base; used more by Romans; "girl going to Homecoming" column
symposium
male drinking party
"Centaur Frieze"
marble frieze that shows persians symbolizes Persians as mythological beast and enemy
Doric
have no base, simple capital; based on ratio of of human male's foot length to his heigh; male column
Herodotus
author of "Persian Wars" who wrote an important source of info on Persians and the Persian Wars
"Amazon"
portrayed persians as the amazon warriors being beaten in battle - exalted greek superiority over persian and male superiority over female
Thucydides
wrote "The History of the Peloponnesian War" and was the best historian of the ancient world
stoa
elongated collonade that shelters from elements; symbol of "civic obligation"
Classical Style
was meant to civilize emotions: based on ideals of reason, moderation, symmetry, balance and harmony in all things
Parthenon
temple constructed with illusion of symmetry and depicted perfect order - ornementation intended for gods, not man
Aeschylus
wrote 90 tragedies; important because he was the first tragedian whose plays are known to us
"Delphi Charioteer"
bronze statue; bronze is easier to mold and allows for greater fluidity and detail of form
"Politics"
book in which Aristotle chose the best form of government
"Achilles Armor"
red figure vase that shows quarrel between odysseus and ajax over achilles' armor; casting of psephoi (pebbles thrown by greek heroes) was typical of courts in 5th century greece - democratic idea of casting vote instead of mycenean war idea
"The Tyrannicides"
bronze sculpture that depicted Harmondius and Aristogeiton (heroes) assassinating Hipparchus; by fixing "birth of democracy" on assassins, the greeks erased memory of sparta's helping in ridding athens of Hippias
Thrasymachus
attack of justice (law and order - foundation of polis)
Oracle of Apollo at Delphi
most famous greek oracle
"The Republic"
dialogue about Plato's ideas of ideal government that functioned harmoniously
metics
resident foreigners
Pythagorus
philosopher whose monarches were music and numbers; made pythagorean theorem
"Discobolos"
bronze statue that puts emphasis on beauty of human form and glory of athletiscism
Socrates
poor philosopher who was accused of corrupting the youth and made the Socratic method
Drama
created by Greeks; important because it educated Greek citizens
Thales
monarche - water; postulated unity of universe
Sophocles
great Athenian playwright who wrote "Oedipus the King"
Parthenon
most famous building temple consecrated to Athena
Euripides
skeptic who who questioned moral/religous values and wrote more complex plots
rhetoric
art of persuasive speaking that was valuable in athens
Plato
greatest philosopher of western civilization who focused on the concept of Ideal Forms
Sophists
group of philosophers who were a complexity lacking judgement whose chief goal was misleading people
Philosophy
"friend or love of wisdom" -- followers all sought to answer "why?"
Socratic Method
question and answer technique invented by Socrates that helps the pupil see things for themselves using their own reason
Gorgias
his goal was not truth, but rhetoric -- turned his back on true philosophy; believed that all statements were false and that everything in incomprehensible and unknowable
hetairi
musically and intellectually gifted prostitutes who achieved fortune and renown

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