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World history Mid Term Exam Review


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What is Perspective?
Who is telling the story?
what is Interpretation?
What does the story mean?
What is Memory?
How is the story recorded?
What is importance?
How valuable or significant is the story?
What is origin?
where did it come from? What kind of source?
What is purpose?
Why did they write it?
what is Value?
Why is it important?
What is limitations?
Why is it not the best source? What is missing?
The six characteristics of humans
- Stereoscopic color vision
- precision gripping hand
- symbolic thought
- speech/lanugauge
- Culture (?)
the four Prerequisites for HUBL
- bowl shaped pelvis
- foramen magnum (big hole) beneith skull
- S-shaped spine
- Enlarged big toe inline with others
four advantages of HUBL
-frees hand for tool use, carrying hunting
-increased field of vision
-walk father with less energy
-lower body temperature
Lif during Ice Age (4)
-big game hunting
-first evidence of religion
-complex social structure
belief in spirits in nature
Advantages of domestication (4)
-more reliable food source
-increased population
-sedentary (fixed) home;collective security
-renweable animal reasources
7 disadvantages of domestication
-less diverse diet
-increased population
-lower life expectancy
-sedentary home; easy target
-more labor intensive
-vunerable to famine
-dental problems
relationship teosinte- to maiz (4)
- teosinte- naturally occuring grss
- people take off 90% of the smallest seeds, save 10% of the biggest and plant them
-most robust seeds year after year
- corn or maiz after many years
8 features of civilization
-orgonized government
-complex religion
-job specialization
-social classes
-arts and achritecture
-public works
Ardipithecus Ramidus (4)
- "ground rootman"
-oldest hominid ancestor 5.8 mya
- mostly apelike
evidence of HUBL
Australopithicus afarensis(5)
-AKA "lucy"
-3.9-3 mya
-40% intact skeleton
-400-500 cc
-sexual dimorphism- 2 body types based on gender
Australopithecus aficanus(7)
-southern ape man from africa
-gracile skeleton (small boned)
-3-2.4 mya
-425-480 cc
-No crest
Paranthropus Bosiei (6)
-Robust skeleton
-2.5- 1.2 mya
-475-530 cc
-saggital crest (used for muscle attachment)
homo habilis (5)
-'handy man' or 'toolman'
-earliest member of the genus homo
-2.2-1.6 mya
-500-700 cc
-first to manufacture stone tools
Homo Erectus(5)
-1.8-.25 mya
-750-1250 cc
-first to use fire
- migrated from africa
Homosapiens Neandertalis(6)
- 120-35 thousand ya
-1300-1750 cc
-compact robust frame
-contemporar(lived at same time) with modern humans
Homosapiens sapiens
-100 thousand ya to today
-1200-1500 cc
-advanced tool use
-african exoduc (from africa)
homofloresensis (8)
-95-12 thousand ya
-380 cc
- very advanced stone tool use
- 1 meter tall
-still around??
1st stone tools(2)
-ordinary rocks used to smash things open
-collected bone marrow
Oldowan tool tradition
Oldest manufactured tool tradition
Acheuluean tool tradition (2)
-bifaced (sharp on 2 sides)
-obsidian and flint
llevois tool tradition
too complex to explain without language
the nile river and egypt(5)
-ancient egypt=the nile river
-alluvial flood plain (soil replenished by river water)
-annual floods renwes soil fertility
-flood supplemented and controlled by irrigation
-need for irrigation leads to social heirarchy-hydrovic theory of civilization
Gifts of the Nile (5)
-fresh water
-farming food
-cultural identity
old kingdom (5)
- egypt unified circa 2500 BC
-ruled by divine kings (pharaohs 'greathouse')
-pharoah descended from ruling family (dynasty)
- no distinction between religion and politics
-period of greatest monumental architecture
Middle kingdom(4)
- egypt reunified circa 2134 BCE
-religion and bureacracy (machinery of government) less traditional; priests more important
- food more plentiful and secure
- neolithic (newstone) middle kingdom collapses with invasion by bronzeage hyksos
new kingdom (5)
-emerges with the expulsion of the hyksos
-Egypt becomes a major world power
-Ramses the second and imperial egypt
-egpyt overrun by assyrians and the persians
-relative size (art) denotes importance
late period (3)
-gradual decline
-ruled by greeks and romans
-loses all independance in 30 BCE
kindom of Kush (6)
-called Nubia by the egpytians
-rich in gold, ivory and slaves
-bacam and Egyptian colony
- eventually overthrew egypt
-ruled egypt for 100 years
-restored traditional egyptian religion
influences on Egyptian religion(5)
-developed in isolation
-clear physical boundaries between life and death (niled and desert)
-regular flooding of nile and unchanging climate
-mummies are natural
-lots of time, nochange
art in ancient egypt (6)
-created for the state not the artist
-formal design, no interpretation
-emphasis on continuaty-change is bad!
-not for 'beauty' or 'decoration'
-priority on next life
-not for public display
the pyramids (4)
-built through a tax on labor, not by slaves
-pyramid construction links people with their ruler (god)
-annual construction during flood season
-people became dependant on pharoah for support
definitions of :
earth god-
sky god-
mono-one god and no other
poly-many gods
earth-farmers practiced it
sky-nomads practiced it
Akhenaton (2)
-wanted to change religion of egypt
-worship one god: Aton
-restored egypt's religion
Hammurabi (4)
-1790 BCE Hammurabi king of babylon
-to unite empire he published laws(code of hammurabi)
first one to write down laws
-lex taziones 'law of the tooth' (an eye for an eye)
-united tribes into nation of Israel in 1000 BCE
-son of david and made a splendid capital
Ideographic communication (6)
-a symbol represents an idea
-simple to read
-universally understood
-not language specific
-not everyone can draw
-unlimited symbols
pictographic writing (7)
-symbol represents words
-more precise than Ideographic communication
-language specific
-easier to draw
-many, many symbols
-no longer self-explanitory
- no concepts (ex- recent, hope)
syllabic writing (6)
-symbol represents a syllable
-reprsents abstract thought
-new words
-fewer symbols
-many symbols still
Alphabetic writing (5)
-symbol represents a sound
-fewest symbols of all
-everyone can learn
- whole range of thought posiible
-symbols are unrelated
Kingdom of israel (9)
-feuding under David
-Solomon turns jerusalem into splendid capital; builds temples
-works paid for thorugh high taxes
-taxes, discontent lead to split kingdoms (N-Israel S- Judah)
-Israel falls to assyria 722 BCE
-population deported, dissapears
-Judah falls to babylon 586 BCE
-diaspora (scattering) during babylonian exhile
-returned to Jerusalem by King Cyrus of Persia
-Monotheism- one god, not one of many
-God is omnipotent (allpowerful), Omniscient(allknowing) and Omnipresent (everywhere)
-not region specific
-governed by law (religious and civil)
-god acts through history
Uses for mythology (7)
-explains where we came from
-good stuff
-bad stuff
-the unexpected
-the 'big picture'
-what happens when we die
summerian creation story (5, 4sublevels)
- Tiamat(salt-water dragon) mingles with Apsu (fresh water abyss)
- Tiamat-chaos evil
-Tiamat and Apsu team up to destory noisy gods/are defeated
-earth and sky created from their bodies (*alluvial flood plain *sumer located between tigris and euphrates-fresh-, edged by persian gulf-salt- *threatned by salt water intrudsion *evershifting tigris and euphrates)
enlil and the creation of Humans the Myth (5)
-oldest of the sumerian gods
-a sky god
-supervised the gods in digging of the tigris and euphrates
-when gods threaten rebellion, Enlil orders man kind to be created
-man replaces the gods as diggers
Enlil and the creation of Humans Behind the myth (5)
-Sky gods- nomadic people
-Earth gods- farmers
-a precivilized sumerian god
-even the gods must dig
0justifieas back0breaking toil of the masses
Enlil and the flood the Myth(5)
-citieas boom and humans become too noisy
-after plague, drought, and famine people wont quiet down
-Enlil sends a flood
-Enki (god of wisdom) advises a wiseman to build a boat
-makind and animals saved
Enlil and the flood behind the myth (4)
-Flood myths are universal (in alluvial flood plains)
-floods periodically torments sumer
-Evidence abounds for regional flodding 2900 BCE
-an ancient 'perfect storm'?
Gilgamesh and Enkidu the myth (5)
-gilgamesh is the king or Uruk
-Enkidu is the wild man
-Uruk begs gilgamesh for help
-gilgamesh sends priestess to tame him
-enkidu becomes civilized and befriends gilgamesh
Gilgamesh and Enkidu behind the Myth
cities have charms to soothe the savage beast
Epic of gilgamesh the myth (6)
-Enkidu is stuck down by gods
-gilgamesh travels on quest to find flood hero, secret to immortality
-finds flood hero Ziusudra
-Death is necessary
-plant of youth stolen by a snake
-Enkidu tells him the underworld stinks
Akkadian Empire (4)
-sargon, king of Akkad (not of sumer)
-conquered cities of sumer
-established first empire
-overcome by drought, famine, raiders
Babylonian empire (5)
-emerges as regional powe under hamurabi
-efficient centralized government and army
-base 60 math
-precise astronomical observations and predictions
-hammurabi's code
Assyrian empire (7)
-iron technology
-iron better than bronze
-militarized culture
-governance through terror
-unified region
-the first librarians
-subject people unify, revolt
Persian empire (5)
-New babylon emerges from the ashes of Assyria
-Nebuchadnezzar rebuilds, expands babylon
- persian under cyrus the great conquer babylon and beyond
- persian empire= multiethnic, tolerant
-becom enourmously wealthy through money economy
- traders, sailors and merchants
-carry merchendice , culture throughout mediterranean
-founded numerous colonies
-Invented the alphabet
Homer (4)
-composed the Illiad and the odyssey ?
-Illiad and odyssey give sthe greeaks collective identity
-history without writing told by bards
-with rediscovery of writing (from pheonicians) 2 of 10 poems recorded
Darius (3)
-Ionia (greeak and asian minor) invaded 520 BCE
-Ionians revolt (499 BCE)/ Athens sends aid
-Darius conquers Ionia again/vows revenge on Athens
Xerxes (5)
-Darius' son
-invades Athens in 480 BCE
-huge 250,000 men multinational army combat troops only
-greeks divided on whether or not to fight
-Xerxes marches on Athens
Pericles (5)
-a general elected to rebuild Athens
-Build strong navy
-Imvested in public works
-strengthens democracy
-arts flourish
philip of Macedon (5)
- on throne 359 BCE
-wanted to conquer city states
-formed alliances
-338 defeated athens and thebes at the battle of Chaeronea
-assasinated at his daughter's wedding
Alexander the Great (4)
- son of Philip of MAcedon and Olympias
-was 20 when he took the throne
-won first victory against persians at the granicus riiver
-331 took babylon and Dairus the third was assasinated
Socrates (3)
- helped students teach themselves
- Influenced many young Athenians including plato
-put on trial for corrupting youth/condemned to death
Plato (3)
-socrates's student
-his 'Republic' describes ideal state
-father of western philosophy
Herodotus (3)
-father of history
-father of lies
-fisrt systematic effort to examine the human past
Geography of ancient greece(5)
-Harsh rock geography
-little arable (famable) land
- ever present sea
-divides greek people
-water unites greek people
Map (6)
Mycenia - on the middle of the first peninsula that look like fingers
-Macedon in the north
-Ionia- on the large peninsula to the east
-Crete is the large Island
-Sparta- bottom of fisrt peninsula that looks like fingers
-Athens- right on tops of the start of the finger like peninsulas
The minoans (5)
- named after legendary king Minos
-crete mediterraneas (middle earth ) trade hub
-trade brings technology and writing
-influences the earliest greeks
-the palace of knossos= minotaurs layrinth?
Linear B
-syllabic writing from ancient Crete
Miceneans (5)
-Indo-european invaders
-conquered mainland greece
-warrior kings rule from walled city-states
-unite greece in the trojan war
-dark age appears with collapse of mycenae (1200 BCE)
Greek dark ages (6)
-1200-750 BCE
-Myceneans overrun by dorians
-cities abandoned
-greek colonists spread through Mediterranean
-writing lost
-cultural memory preserved by homer
Homer's work (2)
-Illiad and the Odyssey
-gave greeks collective identity
Heroic warfare (3)
-combat by champions
-individual soldiers fight for glory
-replete with arete
The trojanwar (4)
-cental legend of greek civilization
-fought by gods and mortals
-probibly a real war
- ten year siege broken by stratagem (trojan horse)
The hoplite (4)
-moderatly wealthy greek citizen
-paid for own equipment
-heavy infantryman armed with spear, sword, shield, helmet and armor
-fought for property
Hoplite warfare (5)
- warfare and agriculture
- organized in phalanxes (rows of hoplites)
- formation and discipline is key
-frist side to break loses
-battle is war
Hoplite battle (12)
-location is selected or forced
-opposing lines form
-skirmishers fight
- paen is raised(invoking Pan(ic))
-Phalanxes march, trot, then smashes
-pushing of the shields
-gaps open
-short swords exploit gaps
-discipline/line breaks
-Judges confirm victory
-Heralds record result
Direct democracy (5)
-by citizens (assembly)
-elected officials included generals and magistrates
-council of 500 administers decisions made by the assembly
-Tyrant appointed in times of crisis
-women obsolete
City of Athens (4)
-seaside polis- city-state
-population 140,000 athenians
-40,000 citizens (male, native, military)
-100,000 slaves
Athenian social structure (9)
-all citizen ae freemen:
*aristocrats(wealthy landowners)-served in cavlary or captained triremes
*Farmers (bulk
*Thetes (urban craftsmen and trireme rowers)
*Metics(people from outside the city)- could not own land or be citizens
*slaves- had no legal rights
*women- had no legal rights
Athenian government (5)
-direct democracy by citizens (assembly)
-elected officials included generals and magistrates
-council of 500 administers decisions made by the assembly
-tyrant appointed in times of crisis
-women had no role
Athenian education (7)
-taught reading , writing mathematics, music, poetry, sport and gymnastics
-attended school from 5-14
-after early education wealthy attended the academy
military training 18-20 (citizens only)
-little or no formal education
- learned spinning weaving and domestic arts
city of sparta (3)
-land locked on the rocky peloponnesus
-8,000 spatan citizens (spartiates)
-100,000 slaves and semi enslaved farmers(helots)
Spartan social structure (4)
- spartiates (homoioi) Military professionals
-perioci('outsiders' made up craftsmen and trading class)
-Helots(slaves fo serfs who worked the land)- drawn from populations conquered by sparta
-women had few legal rights
Spartan government (5)
-Unique structure- part monarchy (2 kings )/ part oligarchy(by few)/ part republican (USA)/ part aristocracy (upperclass)
-2 kings = 2 generals
-all citizens part of assembly
-council could be vetoed by assembly
-women had no role
spartan education Boys (5)
-first test at birth, if defect then killed
-taken from parents at 7 to begin military training
-forced to steal from helots
-advanced to higher levels of military at 20
-fully dedicated to state at 30
Spartan Education Girls (3)
-studied rading, writing, athletics
-object was to create good child bearing women
-assigned a husband at 18
Persian invasion of Ionia (3)
- Greek and Asia minor (Ionia) invaded 520 BCE
-Ionians revolt in 499 BCE and athens sends an aid
-Darius conquers Ionia again/vows revenge on athens
battle of marathon (7)
-persian fleet land 25,000 troops just outside of athens
-athens appals to all of greece
-10,00 athenian hoplites in defense
-6,400 persians killed, 192 athenians killed
-the first marathon
-persians retreat
second persian invasion (4)
-Xerxes invades in 480 BCE
- huge 250,000 man army
-greeks divided on whether or not to fight
-Xerxes marches on athens
Thermopolae (5)
-7,000 greeks block a mountain pass
-Xerxes hurls his whole army against halanxes
-300 spartans cover greek retreat
-treachary beats bravary
-Athenians evacuate to salamis
Salamis (6)
-'wooden walls'
-Athens is sacked
-Greece rallies behind athens
-371 greek vs. 1207 persian triremes
-geography overcomes numbers
-Xerxes abandones army in Greece
Platea (3)
- platea gropes overland back to Asia
- unified greeks crush remiaing persians at platea
-persians never agin threaten greece
Peloponnesian war (3)
-sparta marches on athens 431 BCE and looks for decisive land battle
-athens walls and navy keep it alive
-plague strikes athens in 430 BCE
Golden age of athens (6)
-athens is asmoking ruin after persian defeat
-pericles is elected to rebuild athens
-builds strong navy
-Invests in public works
-strengthens democracy
-arts fluourish
Athenian empire (4)
-Athen's navy rules the mediterranean
-wealth pours into athens
-neighbors follow athens in belian legue
-the rest of greece nervouse and jealous of athens
Syracuse expedition (5)
-sparta dominates on land
-athen dominates on sea
-after 17 years of war athens sends a force of ships and 5000 troops to syracuse (sicily)
-one spartan general defeats them
-athen's allies revolt
aftermath of peloponnesian war (5)
-athens loses role as leader of greece
-democracy fades
-sparta soon loses role as leader to thebes
0greece remains fragmented
-easy prey for macedon
Greek Philosophy (4)
- 'lovers of wisdom'
-explored roles of ethnics and government
-observed nature to discover natural laws
-do laws govern the universe or gods?
Greek art (4)
-emphasis on phisical beauty and perfection
-statutory mostly natural non dynamic
-hellenistic(greek and eastern influence) rich, dynamic
-pottery offers best insight into greek worls and world veiw
Greek architecture (3)
-strives to convey order and perfection
-Lintel and post style (doorway)
-3 orders of architecture:
Golden ratio (4)
-called phi
-'naturally' occuring perfection
-used extensivly in greek arts
greek drama (4)
-the greek character: apollo vs. Dionysus
-first drama evolved from religious festivals
-drew on collective greek myths
-all male chorus and actors
Aeneas (6)
-greeks sack troy
- Venus's son Aeneas collects family, gods, survivors and heads west
-visits carthage
-Lands in Italy
-Founds first roman dynasty in Alba Longa
- the aeneid written in 19 CE
Romulus and Remus (4)
-Sons of Mars and virgin princess
-kings sets them afloat on the tiber
-twins wash ashore, nursed by she wolf, and raised by a shepherd
-brother found city where they were abandoned
Hanniabal (3)
- wins second punic war, 3 armies are beat
-completly destroyed in the end
-lead army across pyrennes and alps
Gracchi Brothers
-Gariuc and Tiberious attempt reform and are assasinated
lead slave revolts
Julius Caesar (5)
-looks to urban poor for support with money from crassus
-caesar and crassus joined by pompey to for the first triumvirate
-killed by senators
Augustus (6)
-octavian on trial of assasinators of caesar
-octavain, lopidus, and mark antony for second triumverate
-octavian defeats lopidus then antony
-take stitle augustus from senate
-calls himself princeps (first citizen)
-paul includes non jews, writes most of the new testament
Diocletian (3)
-divided empire into eastern and western halves 284 CE
-Appoints coemporer who appoint a caesar(junior emperor)
-keeps better east for himself
Constantine (2)
-contintues reforms from diocletian
-builds new capital in Byzantium called constantinople
-converts empire to christianity which unites them
Odoacer (3)
-barbarian general
-Dethroned alst western emperor
-put himself on the throne
the aeneid (4)
- the greeks sack troy
-venus's son flees to carthage
-founds first roman dynasty
-written in 19 CE
the first romans (3)
- Latins:shepherds and farmers around the 7 hills
-Greek: Trader and colonists form greece
-Etruscans:Migrated to Italy from asia Minor
Senatus populusques Romalus- senate and people of rome
Roman society (5)
- Family was the glue of roman society
-father had absolute power
-patricians:'fathers' of roman society- rome's upperclass
-plebians:ordinary citizen
-slaves had no rights
Nails in the republican coffin (3)
-Economic: polarization of wealth leads to...
-Urban poor: restless masses dependant on state leads to...
-political armies: soldiers serve a general not the state leads to....
Punic wars (7)
-carthage=pheonician city
-romes vs. carthage
-first punic war-mostly on sea rome invents corvus(bridge for boat)
-second punic war- hannibal wins, carthage loses romans three armies are beat by hannibal
-cannae- romans get 60,000 person army
-more people die here in one day than WWI
-third punic war- carthage completly destroyed
Rich get richer (4)
-carthage looted
-patricians bring home booty, slaves
-patricians states worked by slave labor
-lead families compete for power
poor get poorer (4)
-soldier return to find farms desrtoyed
-slave labor takes away job opportunities
-sell property to patricians
-poo, landless romans mover to rome to form 'prolestariat'
caesar the dictator (3)
-caersar leads legions across the rubicon
-defeats pompey
-appointed dictator for tn years then assasinated
greek influences (5)
- romans emphasize practicality
-borrow and improve
-rome conquers greece
-greek culture conquers rome
-religion, philosophy, science, literature, statuary, and architecture are all greek
Roman architecture (6)
-copy greek statuary
-emphasis on realism
-architecture -the practical art
-buildings are funtional and beautiful
-concrete replaces stone
-the arch( kept in place by keystone
The arch (5)
-simple arch with keystone
-barrel vault
-groin vault
roman engineering (5)
- aqueducts water the cities
- roads unite empire
-allow fore easy movement of army
-bridges overcome rivers
-Hadrian's wall
Roman Public Works (4)
- bread and circuses- free food and entertainment
-gladitorial games
-public baths temples and theatres
-the insulae (public housing)
roman law (5)
-law rules, not the emperor
- equality under the law
-stutory law (written) not common
-publicly displayed
-the twelve tablets
slavery in rome (4)
-critical to roman economy
-war captives taken as slaves
-greek slaves prized as doctors, artists, and craftsmen
-other had a harsh, miserable life
early roman religion (6)
-borrowed from greeks
-mars, jupiter chief gods
-female gods loose importance
-emperors claim descent from gods
-generally tolerant of other religions
Judaism in the empire (6)
-highly respected for its antiquity
-exempt from worship of roman gods
-feel faith is threatned
-zealots revolt in 66BCE
-recoltcrushed/teple destroyed
-jews scattered (diaspora)
Jesus (7)
-jewish teacher (rabbi)
-taught followers law is not enough
-love conquers all
-religious and political revolutionary?
-Jesus the Khristos 'annointed one'
-social revolutionary
-tried by local court, executed by romans
spread of christianity (6)
-began as a movement within Judaism
-gospels record life of jesus, mark 1st mathew and luke based on it
-paul resonsible for inclusion of nonjews;writes most of new testament
-jesus as humanity's savior
similar to contemporary religions
-promise of eternal life and value of individual appealed to many
Roman persecution (6)
-romans tolerant of nonthreatening religions
-christian refused to worship roman gods (treason)
-persecution begins with nero and burning of rome
-the games and martyrdom
-devout faith encourages new converts
-jesus fish as a way of recognition
from pagan to christian (8)
-multinational empire= many many gods
-christian gods is universal
-appealed to all social classes
-all equal in the eyes of god
-christianity gradually wins converts
-constantine converts, legalizes it
-theodosius converts empire
-roman church becomes catholic(universal) chruch
Christianity outside of rome (6)
-what is the nature of jesus?
-Jeswish christianity (jesus as messiah)
-arian christianity (jesus as man)
-mestorian christianity(mary mother of christ, he is not son of god)
-coptic christianity (jesus as man and god)
-gnostic chritianity(jesus as an illusion)
The empire in 280 CE (6)
-western half:
*declining agricultural productivity
*heavy barbarian incursions
*the 'ulcer' city of rome
- the eastern half
*wealthy 'gateway' for trade from the east
*less open to invasion
*more homogenous legions
Barbarian threats to rome (4)
-ostrogoths (eastern goths) settle in the east, absorbed by the huns
-Visigoths (western goths) migrate and settle in the east and west
vandals settle in spain and north africa
-huns are engine for barbarian invasion
the fall: military causes (4)
- frontiers settled by retired soldiers
-barbarians migrate and man the legions
-fewer romans in the roman army
-by 476 the west almost entirely barbarian
the fall: economic causes (4)
-taxes increase, revenue decreases
-decreased agricultural activity
-climate change?
-imperial over reach and static frontiers
The fall: political causes (3)
-political instability leads to civil wars
-emperors spend (waste) money on soldiers and proletariat (poor)
0east and west increasingly independant
the fall: social causes (5)
-barbarians replace citizens
-mercenaries replace citizen soldiers
-civic virtues, patriotism evaporates
-fat, dumb, and happy
End of the western roman empire (4)
-falls in 476 CE ***
-odoacer desposes of romulus augustus and names himself king
-ancient history ends
-eastern empire (byzantine) endre for a millenium

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