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AP Environmental Scinece


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developing countries
country that has low to moderate industralization and low to moderate per capita GNP. Most are located in Africa, Asia, and Latin America
increasing the quality of goods and services without depleting or degrading the quality of natural resources to unsustainable levels for current and future generations (qualitive growth)
Gross domestic product
(GDP) total market value in current dollars of all goods and services produced within a courntry for final use usually during a year
economic growth
increase in the real value of final goods and services produced by an enonomy; an increase in real GNP
ecological resource
anything needed by an organism for normal maintenance, growth, and reproduction. Examples include habitat, food, water, and shelter
perpetual resource/ renewable resource
an essentially inexhaustable resource on a human time scale. Solar energy is an example.
economic development
improvment of living standerds by economic growth.
linear growth
a quantity increases by a constant amount per unit of time
- yields a straight line sloping upwards
recycling v. reuse
recycling: collecting and reprocessing a resource so that it can be made into new products. (ex aluminum cans into aluminum chairs)
reuse:using a product over and over again in the same form. (glass bottles)
solar/ earth capital
solar energy from the sun reaching earth
gross national product
(GNP) Total market value in current dollars of all goods and services producedby and economy for final use usually during a year.
environmetally sustainable society
Society that satisfies the basic needs of its people without depleting or degrading its natural resources and thereby preventing current and furture generations of humans and other species from meeting thier basic needs
nonrenewable resource
resource that exists in a fixed amount in a various places in the eath's crust and has the potential for renewal only by geological, physical, and chemical processes taking place over 100s of millions of years. Examples are copper, aluminum, coal, and oil. we classify these resources as exhaustible because we are extratcing and using them at a much faster rate then they were formed.
natural resources/ natural capital
the earth's natural materials and processes that sustain other species and us
Environmental Wisdom
learning as much as we can about how the earth sustains itself and adapts to ever-changing environmental conditions and integrating such lessons from nature into the ways we think and act
Envionmental science
the interdisciplinary study that examines the role of humans on earth

includes the disciplines of chemistry, economics, politics, ethics, etc., to understand how the earth works and how we are affecting it

pollution prevention
device or process that prevents a potential pollutant after it has been produced or has intered the environment. Examples are automobile emission control devices and sewage treatment plants.
Expontial growth
a quantity is increased by a fixed percentage of the whole in a given time as each increase is applied to the base for further growth
sustainable yield
(sustained yeild) highest rate at which a potentially renewable resource can be used with out reducing its available suppley throughout the world or in a praticular area.
rule of 70
doubleing time (in years) =
70/percentage growth rate
tagedy of the commons
Depletion or degradation of a potentially renewable resource to which people have free and unmanaged access. and example is the depletion of commercially desiarable species of fish in the open ocean beyond area controlled by coastal countries.
doubling time
the time it takes a (usually in years)for the quality of something growing expontially to double. It can be calculated by dividing the annual percentage growth rate into 70
an undersirable chane in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of air. water, soil, or food that can adversely affect the health survival, or activities of humans or other living organisms
environmetal degration
depletion or destruction of a potentially renewable resource such as soil, grassland, forest, or wildlife that is used fasterthat it is naturally replenished. If such use continues, the resource can be become nonrenewable (on a human time scale) or nonexistent (extinct)
point v. Nonpoint sources
point source: single identifiable source that discharges pollitants into the environment. Ex. smokestack, drain pipe,chimney, exhaust pipe of a car
nonpoint source: large or dispersed land areas such as cropfields, streets, and lawns that discharge pollutants into the environment over a large area.
planetary management worldview
beleifs that 1. we are the planet us and the most important species. 2. there is always more and it us all for us; 3. all economic growth is good, more economic growth is better and the potential fo reconomic growth is limitless; and 4. our success depends on how well we can understand, control, and manage the earth life-support systems for out own benefit.
economic resource
anything obtained from the environemtn (the eath's life support systems) to meet the needs and wants. Examples include food water, shelter, manufactored goods, transportation, communication, and receation. they include natural resources, human resources, financial resources, and manufactored resources.
broad process of global social, economic, and environmental change that leads to an increasingly integrated world
wealth gap
the gap between the per capita GNP of the rich, middle income,poor and acutely poor
The environmental impact of population depends on three factors: 1. The number of people (population size P) 2. The average number of units of resource each person gets (per capita consumption of affluence, A) 3. The amount of environmental degradation and pollution produced for each unit of resource used P x A x T = I (environmental impact) - this model may help us understand how key environmental problems and some of their causes are connected
environmental worldview
how individuals think that the world works, what they think thier role in the world should be and what they believe is right and worong environmental behaivor.(environmetal eithics)

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