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World Geography

Chapters 9, 10, and 11.


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people of mixed Spanish and Native American heritage.
a military dictator or political boss.
a member of the Quechen peoples of South America who built a civilization in the Andes Mountains in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Push factor
a factor that causes people to leave their home-lands and migrate to another region.
the ancient Aztek capital, site of Mexico city today.
a style of music that developed in Jamaica in the 1960s and is rooted in African, Caribbean, and American music, often dealing with social problems and religion.
Orinoco River
a river mainly in Venezuela and part of South America's northernmost river system.
a way of clearing fields for planting by cutting trees, brush, and grasses burning on them.
Pull factor
a factor that draws or attracts people to another location.
Parana River
a river in central South America andone of its three major river systerms, originating in thehighlands of southern Brazil, traveling about 3,000 miles south and west.
a Brazilian dance with African influences.
a factory in Mexico that assembles imported materials into finished goods for export.
Spanish, African, and Native Americans
Who blended to form the culture of South America?
a government run by a few persons or a small group.
a government run by generals after a military take-over
a martial art and dance that developed in Brazil from Angolans who were taken there by the Portugese from Africa.
a style of music that began in Trinidad and combines musical elements from Africa, Spain, and the Caribbean.
the variety of organisms within an ecosystem.
Andes Mountains
a large system of mountain ranges located along the Pacific coast of Central and South America.
an important trade agreement creating a huge zone of cooperation on trade and economic issues in North America.
the basic supposer systems needed to keep an economy going, including power, communications, transportation, water, sanitation, and education systems.
Atacama Desert
dryest area in the world.
global warming
the buildup of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, preventing heat from escaping into space and causing rising temperatures and shifting weather patterns.
a large, grassy, treeless area in South America, used for grazing and farming.
Insitutional Revolutionary Party
the political party introduced in 1929 in Mexico that helped to introduce democracy and maintain stability formuch of the 20th century.
United Provinces of Central America
the name of central America after the region declared independence from Mexico in 1823.
Cultural hearth
the heartland or place of origin of a major culture; a site of innovation from which basic ideas, materials, and technology diffuse to other cultures. (Mayan)
Amazon River
the second longest river in the world, and one of South America's three major river systems, running about 4,000 miles from west to east, and emptying into the Atlantic Ocean.
land reform
the process of breaking up large landholdings to attain a more balanced land distribution among farmers.
the language of the Inca Empire, now spoken in the Andes highlands.
a forest region located in the Tropical Zone with a heavy concentration of different species of broadleef trees.
Spanish conquest
the conquering of the Native Americans by the Spanish.
A vast area of grassland and rich soil in south-central South America.
Panama Canal
a ship canal cut through Panama connecting the Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean.
Farming, trade, sugar plantations, and tourism
What are major sources of income in the economies of Central America and the Caribbean?
Terraced farming
an ancient technique for growing crops on hillsides or mountain slovpes, using step-like horizontal fields cut into slopes.
Treaty of Tordesillas
a treaty between Spain and Portugal in 1494 that gave Portugal control over the land that is present day Brazil.
a savanna that has flat terrain and moderate rainfall, which make it suitable for farming.
the cutting down and clearing away of trees and forests.
debt-for-nature swap
a debt-reducing deal wherein an organization agrees to pay off a certain amount of government debt in return for government protection of a certain portion of rain forest.
the most colorful feast day in Brazil.

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