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Tobacco economy
Chesapeake was a hospitable to tobacco; tobacco quickly ruined the soil, which created a intense need for new farming land; farmers then went searching for farm land and kicked Indians out of their land which caused more Indian attacks; ships annually hauled 1.5 million pounds of tobacco out of Chesapeake by the 1630s and 40 million pounds a year by the end of the century; more tobacco meant more labor;
Financial/social wealth in Europe vs. financial/ social wealth in colonies
- compared to Europe Americans lived in abundance; they earned 3x more than the Europeans and the land was cheap
Rhode Island and slaves
- in 1698 Royal African Company lost its crown-granted monopoly on carrying slaves to the colonies so especially Rhode Islanders rushed to cash in on the slave trade and the supply of slaves rose steeply
Slave life in Chesapeake
- life was not as harsh as in the south. Tobacco was a less physically demanding crop than those in the deep south and plantations were larger and closer together allowing slaves more contact with friends and family
Family life in New England
were family oriented with only a few prenancys before marraige ,had many children due to high fertility with women usually marrying by thier early twenties
Slave life on the Deep South
- It was especially severe. The climate was hostile to the health and labor was life draining. Very loney life style because rice and indigo plantations so scattered. Blacks perished quickly
Former indentured servants
- 3rd in the southern social hierarchy; frustrated because they couldn't acquire land or find single women to marry due to scarcity; participants of Bacon's Rebellion
Health in New England
here the women were very fertile and the avg. life expectancy was increased by ten years
Economy of NE
- shipbuilding, commerce, and caught codfish off the coast
Climate in NE
- characterized by uncomfortably hot summers and cold winters; extreme temperatures
Gender roles in northern and middle colonies
- women wove, cooked, cleaned, and cared for children. Men cleared land; fenced, planted, and cropped it; cut firewood, and killed livestock
William Berkeley
- VA's governor who thought former indentured were a bother; friendly with the Indians due to fur trade; refused to retaliate Indian attacks on frontier settlements and was forced out of Jamestown by rebels; crushed Bacon's Rebellion after Bacon died
Origin of most African slaves
- most of the slaves who reached North America came from the west coast of Africa. They were originally captured by African coastal tribes, who traded them in crude markets to European and American flesh merchants
Half-way covenant
- 1662, a new Puritan formula for church membership saying members had to admit baptism but not "full communion"
- "First Families of Virginia"; Fitzhugh, Lees and Washingtons possessed among then horizonless tracts of Virginias real estate and dominated the House of Burgesses: families established before 1690 had more power in legislature
Gender roles in the South
- the southern colonies generally allowed married women to retain separate title to their property and gave widows the right to inherit their husband's estates since southern men frequently died young. Women, slave or free, on southern plantations wove, cooked, cleaned, and cared for children. Men cleared land; fenced, planted, and cropped it; cut firewood; and butchered livestock as needed
Bacon's Rebellion
- 1676 1,000 former indentured servants attacked Indians , torched the capital and forced Berkley out of Jamestown because they were angry with circumstances (no land, no single women, Berkley refused to retaliate on Indians) ; led by Nathaniel Bacon; planters saw white ind. Servants hard to control which led to increase in black slaves and decrease in ind. servants; 1st time race card was played
Slave codes
- based on race. Beginning in Virginia in 1662, statutes appeared that formally decreed the iron conditions of slavery for blacks. These earliest "slave codes" made blacks and their children the property for life of their white masters. Some colonies made it a crime to teach slaves to read or write. Not even conversion to Christianity could qualify a slave for freedom
the illegal execution of an accused person by mob action, without due process of law.
What types of people came to the colonies?
- Most white migrants came neither from aristocracy nor from the dregs of European society (except indentured sevents)
Property rights in NE
upper classmen usually bought land as opposed to the frontiers and poorest members of society.
Women's rights in NE
In New England, men didn't have absolute power over their wives (as evidenced by the punishments of unruly husbands), but they did have much power over women
Indian slaves
Indians were considered as workers for tobacco farms, but they typically died after contact with whites, making them an unreliable work force.
Yankee Ingenuity
- originally fostered by the flinty fields and comfortless climate of New England; came to be claimed by all Americans as a proud national trait; beign clever, original, and incentive
Salem "witch hunt"
- In 1692, the hunt for certain older women who claimed to have bewitched a group of adolescents in Salem, Mass. Led to hanging of 20 women and 2 dogs
Unhealthy Chesapeake
There were many diseases that were bad in Chesapeake such as malaria, Dysentery, Typhoid; these diseases took ten years of newcomers life expectancy; most people did not live to see their twentieth birthday; settlements in Chesapeake grew mostly by new immigrants, and those young, single men who survived competed for the rare woman's affections; Eventually the immigrants acquired immunity to the new world diseases; by t he end of the 1600s the white population of Chesapeake was growing by its own birthrate.
Middle passage
- the gruesome trip to the New World in which branded and bound African captives were herded aboard sweltering ships. The death rates on these ships ran as high as 20%
Head-right system
both Virginia and Maryland invoked this system; it was made to encourage the importation of servants; is says that whoever paid the passage of a laborer received the right to acquire fifty acres of land; and Masters reaped the benefits of having servants.
Changes in Britain that affected pool of workers for colonies
- in 1680's rising wages in England shrank the pool of folks willing to gamble a new life as indentured servant
Agriculture in NE
- very little agriculture; only tobacco in south
Transportation in the South
roads were very poor and rivers were the primary mode of transportation(this had a lot to do with the creation of family plots)
Cities in the South
were controlled by rich planters;under them were poor whites ,the largest group, and beneath them were the landless whites(conditions were horible for slaves in this area)
African contributions to American culture
- they started a language called "Gullah", gave us words like goober, gumbo, and voodoo. also ringshout dance that led to jazz. Also the banjo and bongo drum
slave religion
Most became Christian fusing African and American religions togetherand drew own conclusion of scripture; most popular when God freed the Hebrews but white wanted them to know about humility and to stay in their place; Black Methodists dance in worship and formed the ringshout dance; all enjoyed songs w/ messages of escape and rebellion
- occurring in the mid 17th century, this was a new form of sermon heard from the Puritan pulpit; preachers scolded parishioners for wanting piety
- language slaves developed on the sea islands off the coast of South Carolina. It blended English with several African languages, including Yoruba, Ibo, and Hausa
an inland region set back from a port, river, or seacoast.
Property Rights in the South
b/c men often died before their wives the woman could inherit their spouse's land
Society/structure of NE
Life in New England was organized; A town usually had a meetinghouse surrounded by houses and a village green; Towns of more than 50 families had to provide primary education; Towns of more than 100 had to provide secondary education; New England law was very severe and strict.
Indentured Servants
indentured servants were volunteered to work for several years, in relearn the got transatlantic passage and eventual freedom dues, which included barrels of corn and a suit of clothes and occasional small pieces of land.
slave revolts
in NYC in 1712 revolt results in dozens of whites dead and 21 blacks executed some burned at stake; more than fifty blacks marched along Stono river in North Carolina to Spanish Florida in 1739 but stopped by local militia: blacks easier to control then indentured servants
Leisler's Rebellion
- animosity between lordly landholders and aspiring merchants caused a bloody uprising that rocked New York City from 1689 to 1691

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