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Biology Chapter 6- Chromosomes and Cell Reproduction


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An organ's reproductive cells.
WHat happens to the DNA when a cell is divided?
The DNA is first copied and then distributed.
Binary fission: definition
form of asexual reproduction that produces identical offspring
Binary Fission: Stage 1 and 2
1. DNA is copied, cell divides. 2.squeezed toward the center by new cell membrane, and pinches off like a balloon.
segement of DNA that codes for a protein or RNA molecule
As a eukaryotic cell prepares to divide, the DNA and the proteins associated with the DNA coil into this structure.
The two exact copies of DNA that make up each chromosome. TWo chromatid attached at the centromere.
Homologous chromosomes
chromosomes that are similar in size, shape, and genetic content
How many chromosomes are there in human somoatic cells?
46-2 sets of 23.
A cell, such as a somatic cell, that contains two sets of chromosomes.
A cell, such as a gamete, that has only one set of chromosomes.
fertilized egg cell, the first cell of a new individual.
chromosomes that are not directly invloved in determining the sex of an individual.
sex chromosomes
one of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes, that determine the sex of the individual.
A photo of the chromosomes in a dividing cell that shows the chromosomes arranges by size.
when the chromosome and the homologue seperate
deletion mutation
A piece of the chromosome breaks off completely
duplication mutation
A chromsome fragment attaches to its homologuous chromosome, which will carry 2 copies of the gene.
inversion mutation
attached in reverse orientation to the chromosome.
translocation mutation
piece reattached to a non-homologous chromosome
cell cycle
a repeating sequence of cellular growth and division during the life of an organism.
first three phases of the cycle, where a cell spends 90% of its time.
First growth phase(G1)
-cell carries out its routine functions
Synthesis phase(S)
-DNA is copied
-at the end, each chromosome is 2 chromatids attached at the centomere
Second growth phase(G2)
-preparation made for nucleus to divide
- microtobules are assembled(used to move chromosomes during mitosis)
The process during cell division in which the nucleus of the cell is divided into 2 nuclei.
-Each nucleus ends up with the same # and kinds fo chromosomes as the orginal cell
The process durig cell division in which the cytoplasm divides.
G1 checkpoint
-will the cell divide?
If healthy conditions, syntheis begins. If not, it is stopped.
DNA synthesis checkpoint (G2)
-DNA replication is checked at this point by repair proteins
-prepares for mitosis
Mitosis checkpoint
-triggers the exit from mitosis
-signals the beginning of G1
uncontrolled growth of cells
cell structures made up of both centrioles and individual microtobule fibers that are involved in moing chromosomes during cell division.
M: Prophase
-chromosomes coil up and become visible
-nuclear envelope dissolves
-spindle forms
M: Metaphase
-chromosomes move to center of cell; line up across the equator
-spindle fibers link the chromatids of each chromosome to opposite poles
M: Anaphase
- centromeres divede
-two chromatid(somes) move toward opposite poles
-spindle fibers shorten
M: Telophase
-nuclear envelope forms around the chromosomes at each pole
-chromosomes at oposite poles uncoil
-spindle dissolves
-mitosis complete
What is the end result of mitosis and cytokinesis?
two genetically identical cells where only one cell exsisted before
What occurs during cytokinesis?
-cytoplasm of cell is divided in half
- cellmembrane grows to enclose each cell, forming two seperate cells
What happens with cytokinesis in cells that lack cell walls?
The cell is pinched in half by a belt of protein threads
What occurs in plant cells, with rigid cell walls?
they form a cell plate by vesicles that fuse in the golgi apparatus instead.
What is your middle name?
What does SADD stand for?
uchhh, you know.
plastic bag.
Tom Green
Albatross wings.....
the book

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