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Medical Terminology a systems approach ch 6


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What is the largest organ in the body?
What constitutes the integumentary system?
hair, nails, glands, breasts, and skin.
what are the functions of the skin?
protects against injuries and bacterial invasion, aids in regulation of body temperature, and prevents dehydration.
what acts as a reservoir for food and water?
what works as a sensory receptor and is responsible for the synthesis of vitamin D when exposed to sunlight?
what are the 2 layers of skin?
epidermis and dermis
what skin layer has no blood or nerve supply?
what is the outermost layer of skin called?
what is the skin layer epidermis made up of?
cells in several strata or sublayers called stratified squamous epithelium.
what are the most important of the 4 or 5 layers of the epidermis?
stratum corneum and the stratum germinativum.
where are new cells formed for skin?
the basal layer in the stratum germinativum
what is keratin?
a waterproof material made of hard protein
what layer of skin contains keratin?
the stratum corneum
what does the waterproofing characteristic of keratin do for the body ?
it prevents body fluids from evaporating and atmospheric moisture from entering the body.
where is the dermis or corium ?
it's the layer of skin laying immediately under the epidermis.
the dermis is composed of what?
capillaries, lymphatics, and nerve endings, hair follicles, sebaceous (oil) glands, and sweat glands.
where is the subcutaneous tissue or hypodermis located?
under the dermis
what does the subcutaneous tissue contain ?
fat or adipose tissue
what is the function of the subcutaneous tissue?
connects the skin to underlying organs
the visible part of the hair is referred to as the ......
hair shaft
the part of the hair that is embedded in the dermis is called the ......
hair root
the hair follicle is what?
the root together with it's coverings
what is the papilla?
a loop of capillareies enclosed in a covering at the bottom of the hair follicle
what is responsible for the eventual formation of the hair shaft?
the cluster of epithelial cells lying over the papilla
what glands in the skin produce secretions ?
sudoriferous (sweat) glands
sebaceous (oil) glands
what are small structures that open as pores on the surface of the skin?
sudoriferous glands
where are sudoriferous glands found ?
palms, soles, forehead, and armpits (axillae).
what are the main functions of the sudoriferous glands?
cool the body by evaporation, to excrete waste products through the pores of the skin, and to moisten surface cells.
what secrets sebum ?
sebaceous glands as the cells disintegrate.
the function of sebum is ?
to destroy harmful organisms on the skins surface and thus to prevent infection.
where are sebaceous glands located?
the entire body except on the soles of the feet and the palms of the hands
what is the lunula?
the crescent-shaped white area near the root of the nailbed. this is where new growth occurs
what is estrogen responsible for?
the adipose tissue and increased size of the breasts as they reach full maturity
what forms the lobules that are present in the breast?
the other ovarian hormone, progesterone
each breast has approximately how many lobes of glandular tissue?
what is responsible for the milk production?
what are lactiferous ducts?
they are what the milk comes through and opens at the tip of the raised nipple
what is the areola?
a circling of slightly darker skin around the nipple
disease of a gland
fat tumor
resembling fat
fat tumor
abnormal condition of a nail that is hidden
pertaining to under the skin
inflammation of the skin
a tumor of the sweat gland
abnormal condition of dry or scaly skin
abnormal condition of horny tissue

horny tissue, hard, or cornea
pertaining to milk
surgical repair of the breast
excision of the breast
abnormal condition of a skin fungus
a softening of the nail
pertaining to the nail
pertaining to a nest in the hair
disease of the hair
abnormal condition of hardening
pertaining to being scaly
inflammation of the nipple
dry skin
faty cell
hardening of the skin
record of the breast
instrument for recording the breast
process of recording the breast
specialist in the study of the skin
study of the skin
dermat/o/ therapy
treatment of the skin
above or upon the skin
abnormal condition of excessive sweat
pertaining to under or below the skin
pertaining to under or below the skin
what are lesions?
areas of pathologically altered tissue
what forms over sores or wounds ?
scabs (crustations)
what is excoriation?
a skin lesion that happens when trauma, chemacles, or burns cause a superficial loss of tissue
abrasion ?
a scraping or rubbing away of the epidermal tissue
what's a contusion ?
a bruise
what is a laceration
a tearing of body tissue
what does a macule look like and give one example
flat, discolored, curcumscribed lesion of any size.

freckle, flat mole, hyperpigmentation
describe a papule and give an example
solid elivated lesion, <1cm in diameter

nevus, warts, pimples
give the characteristics and an example of a nodule
a palpable circumscribes lesion, larger than a papule, 1-2cm in diameter

Benign or malignant tumor
what are the characteristics and give an example of a wheal
Dome-shaped or flat-topped elevated lesion, slightly reddened and often changing in size and shape, usually accompanied by intense itching.
what are the characteristics and give an example of the vesicle and bulla
elevated lesion that contains fluid, a bulla is a vesicle >0.5 cm

Blister, herpes zoster, second-degree burn
give the characteristics and an example of a pustule
elevated lesion containing pus that may be sterile or contaminated with bacteria; small abscesses of the skin .
Acne, pustular psoriasis
give the characteristics and an example of a scale
excessive dry exfoliation shed from upper layers of skin.

Psoriasis, ichtryosis
give the characteristics and an example of a fissure
small cracklike sore or break exposing the dermis; usually red

Athlete's foot, cheilosis
give the characteristics and an example of a ulcer
loss of epidermis and dermis within a distinct border

pressure sore, basal cell carcinoma
what is a cicatrix?
a scar
keloid is?
excessive scar or enlarged and thickened scar
what is a first-degree burn?
superficial burn limited to the top layers of the eidermis ...
distinguished with erythema and hypperesthesia
erythema is ?
a redness of the skin
hyperesthesia is ?
extream sensitivity
what are 2nd degree burns characterized by?
the formation of fluid-filled blisters (vesicles or bullae)
in most instances a _______________ wil not result in the formation of scar tissue
2nd degree burn
what are 3rd degree burns ?
cause complete destruction of the skin tissue and represent the most serious type of burn; it penetrates both the epidermis and the dermis.
what type of burn usually results in scar formation that can only be altered by a process of skin grafting?
3rd degree burns
dermatoplasty is what ?
skin grafting
pertaining to the abdomen and pelvis
enlargement of an extremity
pertaining to the groin
pain in the loin
herniation of the navel
measuring the pelvis
visual examination of the pelvis
neoplasms are what ?
autonomous growths
what is the most common type of skin cancer?
basal cell carcinoma
what is the most common malignancy of women in the US?
breast cancer
squamous cell carcinoma is what ?
a tumor of the epidermis.
sun exposure is an important contributing factor for what disease?
malignant melanoma
aids patients usually have this.
It's an immune disease.
a Flesh tumer

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