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Anatomy and Physiology II


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What kind of cells divide in Meiosis II
secondary spermatocytes
What is the primary difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis?
Spermatogenesis takes place all the time, oogenesis takes a long time
What are the functions of the seminal vesicle
secrete alkaline - to neutralize vagina
secrete fructose - energy source
secrete clotting proteins - to clump
secrete prostaglandins - motility, viability
What causes ejaculation
Motor neurons cause skeletal muscle to contract rhythmically. Semen is forced out.
What must bind to the sertoli cells to activate them
Is the reproductive system necessary for a human to live?
What are the major male reproductive organs
Series of Ducts
Accessory Glands
What are 3 male reproductive ducts?
Epididymis, vas deferens, urethra
What are 3 male reproductive accessory glands?
Seminal Vesicles
Prostate Gland
Bulbourethral Gland
What is the irregular ridge on the midline of the scrotum?
What is the muscle surrounding the scrotum?
Dartos Muscle
What is the muscle that surrounds the vas deferens?
Cremaster Muscle
What type of gland are the testes?
Exocrine and Endocrine
What does the exocrine portion of the testes make?
What does the endocrine part of the testes produce?
What is the outer layer of CT on the scrotum?
Tunica Vaginalis
What is the inner layer of CT on the scrotum?
Tunica Albuginea
What is the site of sperm development?
Seminiferous Tubules
What type of cells in the testes make testosterone?
Leydig Cells
What type of cells line the walls of the seminiferous tubules?
Sertoli Cells
What is the space called inside the seminiferous tubules?
What type of junction is between the Sertoli cells?
Tight Junction
What purpose do the tight junctions serve?
They form a blood testes barrier. If blood gets mixed with the sperm, the blood cells will kill the sperm.
What are the very basic sperm cells called?
Germ cells or Spermatogonia
What is the first division called in meiosis?
Reduction Division
What is the second division in meiosis called?
Equational Division
What does a spermatogonia produce when it undergoes mitosis?
One spermatogonia and one primary spermatocyte
What does the primary spermatocyte produce when it undergoes meiosis?
2 Secondary Spermatocytes.
What do the secondary spermatocytes produce
2 spermatids (each)
What is the function of the Sertoli Cells?
They nourish the immature sperm cells while they are developing.
What are the final steps in a spermatid becoming a sperm?
The spermatid gets a acrosome (cap) and a tail for motility.
What is the very basic female sex cell called?
What results from the mitosis of an oogonia?
A Primary Oocyte
What results from the meiosis of an oocyte?
A secondary oocyte and a polar body
What results from the meiosis of a secondary oocyte?
A mature oocyte and a 2nd polar body.
What hormone is produced by the Leydig cells?
What are the 3 columns of erectile tissue on the penis?
2 Corpora Cavernosa (dorsal)
1 Corpora Spongeosa (ventral)
What does the bulbourethral gland secrete?
An alkaline substance that cleans the urethra from urine.
What system causes ejaculation?
The somatic motor neurons cause skeletal muscles to contract rhythmically.
What 3 things regulate male sex hormones?
Hypothalamus, Anterior Pituitary, and Testes
What are immature male germ cells called
What do leydig cells do the in the testes
make and secrete testosterone
Where are male sex hormones regulated
Anterior Pituitary
What are the 3 parts of the uterus
Fundus, body, cervix
How many oogonia does a fetus in the 4th prenatal month have
2-5 million
What is mechanical digestion
chewing, kneading, mixing (peristalsis)
What is another name for Meiosis I
Reduction division
Where is the site of spermatogenesis
Seminiferous tubules
Where does sperm do its final maturing
epididymis (or fallopian tube)
What are the functions of the bulbourethral (Cowpers) Gland
secretes alkaline substance during sexual arousal to clean urine from the urethra
Releasing and inhibiting factors are made at puberty in the....
What are some male reproductive problems
Undescended testicle
Prostate Cancer - young - aggressive treatment - old - no treatment
Testicular Tortion - male emergency - may lose testicle
What tissue covers the ovaries
Ovarian epithelium
What are the 3 layers of the uterus
How many oogonia does a female have at birth
2 million and they have begun meiosis I
What is chemical digestion
Enzymes are secreted and break down large molecules into small ones
What are the 4 layers of the digestive tract
Peritoneal serosa
What are the 2 shapes of muscle in the muscularis
What is the serous membrane that covers organs
visceral peritoneum
What papillae are located on the anterior 2/3 of tongue with no taste buds
Filiform Papillae
What is another name for Meiosis II
Equational division
What is the exocrine part of the testes
produces sperm
What is the sperm storage area
What causes erection
PNS causes the smooth muscle in the arteris to relax and expand with blood
What male hormone controls the release of FSH and LH
What is cripticordism
undescended testicle
What tissue is below the ovarian epithelium in the ovaries
Tunica Albuginea
What is the purpose of the vagina
Female organ of copulation
What are the 2 parts of the digestive system
Gastrointestinal tract
Accessory structures
What kind of cells divide in Meiosis I
Primary spermatocytes
What is the endocrine part of the testes
produces testosterone
What is the name of the duct where sperm goes and fluid is added from the seminal vesicle
Ejaculatory duct
What causes emission
Sympathetic NS causes emission.
Seminal fluid from the prostate, seminal vesicle, and sperm accumulates and dumps into the prostatic urethra
LH binds to _________ cells to cause an increased rate of spermatogenesis
leydig cells
What muscle attaches the uterus to the abdominal wall
Broad ligament
What are the fingerlike structures on the end of the fallopian tubes
What is the hymen
a thin mucous membrane covering the vaginal opening
What is the major function of the digestive system
To break down food particles into molecules small enough to cross cell membranes
What is absorption
Passage of digested food molecules into blood and lymph
What is special about the submucosa layer
Contains the plexis of meissner - neurons that cause mucous to be released
What is the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
Parietal peritoneum
What is ascitis
abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal space
What papilla are distributed among the filiform papillae and have taste buds
fungiform papilla
What papillae form an inverted V on the back of the tonge and have taste buds
Circumvillate papillae
What enzyme in the mouth breaks down fats or lipids
lingual lipase
What enzyme in the mouth breaks down carbohydrates
What is the function of salivary amalyse
breaks down carbohydrates
What are the functions of saliva
moistens, breaks down food, keeps mouth clean, aids in talking
What is saliva composed of
99.5% water
.5% solutes
What is the name of the opening where the esophagus pierces through the diaphragm
esophageal hiatus
What is a hiatal hernia
a problem where the stomach pushes up into the chest cavity
What is the functions of the esophagus
get food from the mouth to stomach
What is the function of the stomach
a mixing organ
What is the name of the sphincter between the esophagus and the stomach
cardiac sphincter
What is the name of the sphincter between the stomach and the duodenum
Pyloric sphincter
What are the folds in the lining of the stomach
What is the mashed up food called
What are the 2 types of cells in the stomach
Chief cells
parietal cells
What do parietal cells do in the stomach
secrete HCl
What do chief cells secrete
Pepsinogen - which combines with HCl to make pepsin - which breaks down proteins
What does gastric lipase do
breaks down fats (lipids)
What is the duct called that goes from the pancreas to the duodenum
Duct of Wirsung
What is the exocrine part of the pancreas
Acini cells secrete pancreatic juice
What is the endocrine function of the pancreas
islets of langerhans make and secrete insulin and glucagons
What is the pancreatic juice made of
water, salts, sodium bicarbonate, enzymes
What pancreatic enzyme breaks down carbs
pancreatic amylase
What pancreatic enzyme breaks down rna
What pancreatic enzyme breaks down dna
What pancreatic enzyme breaks down lipids
Pancreatic lipase
Where is enterokynase made
in the small intestine
What combines with enterokinase to make trypsin
What is the most important organ in the digestive system
What is the function of the liver - post absorption
Sorts out nutrients and detoxifies the blood
What are the 3 things that make up the portal triad
bile duct
hepatic portal vein
hepatic artery
What is the function of the kupffer cells
breaks down rbc's and wbc's
rbc's = iron, globin, bilirubin
what problem is caused by an underdeveloped liver
What is the main function of the large intestine
fluid balance
What are the divisions of the large intestine called
What type of digestion occurs in the large intestine
Haustral churning
What is an enzyme produced in the stomach
What is the action of Gastrin
promotes the secretion of gastric juice
What is the function of Gastric Inhibitory peptide
Produced in response to fatty acids and glucose. Stimulates the release of insulin to break down glucose
What is the function of secretin
stimulates the pancreas to make and dump pancreatic juice into the small intestine
What is the function of cholecystokinin
Causes ejection of bile
Where is estrogen produced
Granulosa cells
What is the function of Progesterone
Thickens the endometrium for implantation
Prepared mammary glands to sedrete milk
Helps prevent uterine contractions
What is the function of Inhibin
Inhibits FSH
What are 4 female hormones
Hint: EPRI
What occurs during capacition
Sperm changes
membrane around acrosomal cap becomes fragile
sperm releases several enzymes
What enzymes are released during capacitation to breakdown the corona radiata and zona pelucida
hyaluronic acid
What is the zygote called on day 3
What is the zygote called on day 5
What are the 3 layers of the embryoblast
Ectoderm - nervous tissue
Mesoderm - bones and muscles
Endoderm - digestive tract, epithelial
What are the 4 membranes around the embryo
Yolk sac
What is the function of the yolk sac
contains blood stem cells, germ cells for male and female
What is the function of the chorion
The fetal part of the placenta
What is the function of the alantois
It is an extension of the fetal urinary bladder
What are the structures that are found in the maternal and fetal placenta that transfer material from mother to baby
Chorionic villa
What are 4 female problems
Ectopic pregnancy
Breast Cancer
Sexually transmitted disease
Toxic Shock Syndrome
What is the main thing that happens with sexually transmitted disease
Causes scarring of the fallopian tubes -woman can't get pregnant.
What is the first phase of the menstrual cycle
The menstrual phase
What is happening during the menstrual phase in the ovaries
decreasing levels of estrogen and progesterone stimulates the release of GnRH which stimulates the relase of FSH and LH
What does FSH do in the female
Initiates the conversion of several primordial follicles into primary follicles
What is the capsule that is formed around the secondary follicle
What is a primordial follicle
A primary oocyte surrounded by one layer of granulosa cells
How many primordial follicles does a woman in puberty have
What is the second phase of the Menstrual cycle
The Preovulatory Phase Days 5-13
What occurs in the uterus during the preovulatory phase
Under the influence of FSH, the endometrium is repaired.
What occurs during the preovulatory phase in the ovaries
Secondary follicles enlarge and the fluid filled vesicles fuse into a large antrum
During the preovulatory phase the follicle is referred to as a
Graaphian Follicle
When does the primary oocyte complete meiosis I
Just before ovulation
What is the phase of the menstrual cycle at days 15-28
Post ovulatory
What occurs in the ovary during post ovulatory phase
The graafian follicle and thecal cells become the corpus luteum
Meiosis II is completed
What happens to the corpus luteum if pregnancy occurs
The corpus luteum enlarges and keeps secreting progesterone
What happens in the uterus during the post ovulatory phase
Progesterone and estrogen promote the growth of endometrial glands which results in the thickening of the endometrium in preparation for implantation
What happens in the uterus if no pregnancy occurs
The decreasing levels of progesterone and estrogen cause uterine arteries to constrict and the endometrium is sloughed off again.
What happens to the corpus luteum if pregnancy does not occur?
It degenerates to form the corpus albicans
What 4 pancreatic enzymes break down proteins hint: CCET
What are 3 hormones produced in the small intestine
Hint: GSC
Gastric Inhibitory Peptide
What are 3 main differences between a primary follicle and primordial follicle
Primary follicle is larger
PF has zona pellucida
PF has several layers of granulosa
What are 4 functions of testosterone in the male?
Development of male rep. structures
Maintenance of sperm cell production
Influences male behavior
What are 6 functions of hepatocytes
carb metabolism
Lipid metabolism
Protein metabolism
remove drugs and hormones
store vitamins
activation of vitamin D
What are the 3 layers of a blastocyst
Hint: BET
Trophoblast - becomes placenta
Embryoblast - becomes embryo
Blastocele - fluid filled area
What are the 3 sublayers of the mucosa?
Hint: ELM
epithelial layer - protect, secrete
lamina propria - areolar ct, macrophages
muscular mucosa - muscle layer, cause folds
What are the 4 secretions of the Seminal Vesicle?
Alkaline fluid-neutralize acid in vagina.
Fructose-energy source
Clotting proteins-for clumping
Prostaglandins - sperm motility
What 2 changes after the sperm enters the egg
the oocyte completes meiosis II
the zona pelucida changes to prevent more sperm from entering
What does FSH stimulate in the female
The secretion of estrogen from the growing follicles
What does FSH do in the male?
Binds Sertoli cells and causes an increased rate of spermatogenesis.
What does LH do in the female
Stimulates the primary follicles to develop into secondary follicles
What does LH do in the male?
Binds the leydig cells and increases testosterone synthesis.
What does estrogen do in the female?
inhibits the release of GnRH
What does inhibin do in males?
It's made by the sertoli cells and blocks secretion of FSH (when the ampulla is full)
What does the prostate gland secrete?
Milky alkaline fluid w/ fructose, clotting proteins
What is the function of relaxin in females
relaxes the uterin muscles
relaxes pubic symphysis
allows cervix to relax and dilate
What is the path of the sperm from testes to penis?
Hint: 6 parts
Seminiferous tubules
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory Duct
What system controls Emission?
What system controls erection?
PNS causes arteries to relax and fill with blood.
Where is inhibin made in the male
Sertoli cells
Where is relaxin made in the female
Corpus Luteum

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