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Voice - Glossary of Terms

Terms

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Abductor SD (Ab-SD)
Abductor SD (Ab-SD)
Spasms in muscles that open vocal folds and interrupt speech, causing breathy or soundless voice breaks
Acid and Enzymes
Within the stomach, these are chemical substances that help break up (digest) food. An increased level of acid
(measured by low pH) can lead to stomach ulcers, heartburn, and esophagitis
Acute9
New and relatively short in duration)
Advanced Laryngeal Cancer
T3 = complete non-movement of one vocal fold; T4 = invades thyroid cartilage or structures outside of the voice box
Airway Symptoms
Breathing complaints(|’
Anterior Commissure
A dye used in photodynamic therapy that is activated and results in chemical alteration of said dye converting it to a
form that can kill cells which contain the activated dye
Aphasia
Difficulty verbally expressing words, although the individual knows what he wants to say
Aphonia
Complete voice loss
Articulationa
Articulation
The junction between two or more bones9141
Artificial Ventilation’
Machine-assisted breathing
Arytenoid Cartilageson’
Pair of pyramid-shaped cartilages to which the vocal folds are attached in the back of the voice box; spaced well apart
for normal breathing; come together for sound production
Arytenoid Fixation
Restricted joint motion of the arytenoid joint that can lead to abnormal-sounding voice and even incomplete closure of
the vocal folds, which can lead to aspirationowe
Aspirationona
Choking or coughing when swallowing food, drink or even saliva that "goes down the wrong way" (entering the
breathing passage)6
Axial Rotation
An abnormal tilt of the vocal folds during high pitch sound-making
Barium Swallow Esophagram
Barium Swallow Esophagram
X-ray imaging of the food pipe during swallowing
Basal Ganglian
A part of the brain that is likely involved in spasmodic dysphonia (SD); located deep in the cerebral hemispheres and
the upper brainstorm
Basement Membrane
A layer of extracellular material upon which the surface cells rest
Bilateral
Exists on both sideson’
Biopsy9
A test in which a physician removes a small piece of the possibly abnormal tissue to examine under a microscope
Botulinum Toxin, Type A (BoTox)
A short-lasting medical formulation that can be injected into the vocal fold to temporarily limit mobility (can be used to
treat vocal fold granuloma65
Bronchoscopy
Examination of the airway above the lungs using an instrument (scope) that also allows for biopsy and culture

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