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the number of individual chromosomes

(the amount of genetic material)


theca cell

respond to LH and produce testosterone

(like leydig cell in man) 

abruptio placentae

premature separation of the palcenta

PAINFUL uterine bleeding

retroplacental clot, 3rd trimester, fetal death

Risk:age, coke, cigs, HTN 

acrosome is derived from?
asherman syndrome

post D&C the sratum basalis gets scraped off

amenorrhea, scarring 

besides pregnancy, HCG is elevated in
hydatidiform moles, choriocarcinoma
breast cancer that is often bilat
invasive lobular
breast cancer w/ very poor prognosis
inflamatory carcinoma
brenner ovarian tumor
resembles bladder epi
chorionic villi

sprout into mom's uterus, cause moles 


secondary-trophoblast and mesoderm

tertiary-trophoblast, mesoderm, and blood vessels


partial agonist of estrogen receptors on pit

prevent normal feedback and increase FSH LH  stimulating ovulation

"clomi helps make a clone of me" 

complete mole

46XX (both from father)

the placenta is completely mole

Look for high hCG

Risk of choriocarcinoma 

corpus leuteum does?

secretes estrogen and progesterone

It's rescued by HCG. 

the number of centromeres
drugs that inhibit steroid synth
ketaconazole, spironolactone

HTN, proteinuria, edema plus seizures

Tx: IV mg sulfate, diazepam 

embryonal carcinoma

2nd most common teste tumor

painful, hematogenous spread 

having an integer multiple of the monoploid number of chromosomes (23)

5-a reductase inhibitor

Blocks testosterone-->DHT 


competetive inhibitor of testosterone receptors

prostate cancer 

FSH (male)

made by sertoli

Stimulates spermatogenesous 

granulosa cell ovarian tumor

produces estrogen

call-exner bodies=granulosa cells around a central eosinophilic secretions 

granulosa cell

respond to FSH and aromatize testosterone to estradiol 

HCG is detected in urine on day
HELLP syndrome

Hemolysis, Elevated LFT's, Low Platelets

associated w/ preeclampsia/eclampsia 

increased AFP in pregnancy

open neural tube defect

Folate deficiency during first month of pregnancy 

Inhibin (male)

made by sertoli

negative feedback to inhibit FSH release from ant. pit 


GnRH anolog

suppress FSH, LH when not pulsatile 

LH (male)

made by Leydig

Stimulates testosterone synth (activates cholesterol desmolase) 

LH surge occurs because
estrogen switches to positive feedback
low AFP in pregnancy
Down Syndrome
major placental estrogen
marker for germinomas
marker for yolk sac tumors
maturing grafian follicule secretes
Meiosis I in females

begins during fetal life

arrest in prOphase until just before Ovulation 

Meiosis II in females

arrested in Metaphase until fertilization

"a sperm MET an egg" 

mesonephric duct
wolffian structures


competetive inhibitor of progesterone inhibitors 

mole is tumor of what?
benign tumor of chorionic villus
most common ovarian tumors

serous adenoma/adenocarcinoma

often bilateral

adenoma w/ fallopian lining 

most common testicular cancer in older men
mucinous ovarian tumors
seeding produces pseudomyxoma peritonei
order of sperm cell progression
spermatagonium (diploid 2N), primary spermatocyte (diploid 4N), secondary spermatocyte (haploid 2N), spermatid (haploid, 1n)
ovarian fibroma (thecoma-fibroma)

meig's syndrome

ovarian fibroma, ascites, hydrothorax 

ovarian vessels are in?
suspensory ligament of ovary
partial mole


Some fetal parts may be present 

placenta accreta

defective decidual layer allows placenta to attach to myometrium

bleeding after delivery 

Placenta previa

attachment of placenta to lower uterine segment

block cervix

PAINLESS bleeding 


HTN, proteinuria, edema

affects 7% of pregnancies 20wks gestation to 6wks postpartum

primary amenorrhea
no menses by 16yrs old
Risk for breast cancer
prolonged estrogen: early menarche, delayed menopause, nulliparity, postmenopausal obesity
risk for cervical cancer

HPV 16,18

early age of first intercourse, multiple partners, etc 

risk for ovarian cancer

Increased number of cycles


OCPs decrease risk! 

risk for uterine cancer
unopposed estrogen

increase TG

hypercoaguable state 

secondary amenorrhea
absence of menses for 3mo
sildenafil/vardenafil mechanism

cGMP PDE inhibitor

SE:blue-green color vision, HA, flushing, dyspepsia 

sperm food supply
sperm mitochondria are in?
neck of Middle piece
sperm tail is derrived from

choriocarcinoma is of these (NO chorionic villi present) 

cytotrophoblast-inner layer

syncytiotrophoblast-outer layer, grows into endometrium, secretes hCG, hPL

uterine vessels are in?
cardinal ligament (transverse cervical)
what does erb-B2 code for?

Her-2 an EGF receptor

block w/ herceptin (trastuzamab) 

which hormone is indicative of ovulation?
which hormone is the best marker of menopause?
FSH (lower estrogen so less feedback inhibition of FSH)

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