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Bio exam 2


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what are phosphrylate?
a molecule that catches the phospher that flies off of ATP when it is utilized.
The 3 things that ATP is used for
1. Helps for movement/muscles to work 2. Transport work. To help move molecules around 3. Chemical work. helps put complicated molecules together
what is an enzyme?
a biological catalyst.
what does an enzyme do?
lowers energy activation for a reaction to occur.
what is a substrate?
something that goes into an enzyme to make a reaction go faster
what are co-factors in relation to enzymes?
Something that an enzyme needs to work i.e. minerals etc. actually part of enzyme
what are co enzymes
when a substrate needs more than 1 enzyme to get a reaction
what is competitive inhibition?
when a molecule fits into active site to plug up the hole. does this to balance your body's needs. might release. might not.
what is noncompetetive inhibition?
attaches to a part of enzyme and changes shape of the active site. makes enzyme nonfunctional
what 3 things are noncompetetive inhibitors
1. poison 2. antibiotics 3. asprin
Cell membranes are made up of
what is the fluid mosaic model?
that a cell membrane is not solid and can move around
5 things that proteins do in a cell membrane
1. move substanes in and out of cell 2. anchor enzymes next to each other 3. signal transduction 4. maintain cell shape 5. ID tags
Why would proteins anchor enzymes next to each other?
anchor specific enzymes to help a chain of reactions go faster.
what is signal trasduction?!
proteins act as messenger centers. signal goes to protein and protein tells cell.
Ways to transport molecules
1. diffusion 2. osmosis
What is diffusion?
movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration. no energy is needed it is natural.
what is osmosis?
diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane.
what is a hypotonic solution?
has less salt than other solution?
what is hypertonic solution?
has more salt than other solution
what is isotonic solution?
solutions are the same in salt level.
what are transport proteins?
provide hannel for transport of molecues in and out of membrane. they are like gates
what is facilitated diffusion?
diffusing through proteins.
the speed of diffusion depends on 3 things
1. number of transport proteins 2. concentration gradient 3. size of molecules/weight
what is active transport?
when cells move things from low concentration to a high concentration. takes energy/atp to do this.
why is active transport used?
in order to get energy it needs like sugars
what is endocytosis?
membrane folds around food that is very big and creates a vacuole to send it in
what is exocytosis?
when a cell membrane sends a vacuole out of the cell.
what is atp made up of?
sugar and oxygen
glucose + 6Oxygen = ?
6CO2 + 6H20 + ATP
so what is the equation for ATP?
glucose + 6Oxygen = 6CO2 + 6H2n +ATP
how much of the ATP equation is efficiently converted into useful energy>
Calories are actually
KCali. So actually + 1,000!
what is an electron trasnport chain?
a way for hydrogen electrons to go down and slowly release more energy being pulled by oxygen
what is NADH?
temporary storage device for hydrogen electrons
what is gylcolysis?
ripping apart of sugar
What are the 3 stages to make ATP?
1. glycolysis 2. Krebs cycle 3. electron transport chain
when glycolysis happens, what is created? (3)
1. 2 ATP 2. 2 NADH 3. 2 pyruvic acid
What does pyruvic acid make in glycolysis? (3)
1. 2 NADH 2. 2 actyl co A 3. 2 CO2
During the Kreb's cycle what happens?
Takes 2 acytl co A and for each glucose molecule makes 6NADH 2ATP 2FADH 4CO2
What does the electron transport chain do with the products of the kreb's cycle?
turns every NADH2 into 3 ATP and every FADH2 into 2 ATP
When muscles make ATP w/o oxygen, what acid do they produce?
lactic acid.
what is pyruvate acid's by product
ethanol (alcohol)
so how does alcohol actually get made?
yeast takes sugar and converts with out oxygen to create alcohol
what is fermentation?
when something is converted to something without oxygen
what is a product of alcohol fermentation?
When we burn proteins in our body what happens?
We sort out and use the aminos but then every thing else is wasted. (poop! heee)
what did the ancient greeks believe about genetics?
That parental traits were "blended."
when mendel crossed purple and white flowers what were his results?
purple flowers
Mendel's hypthosis (4)
1. there are alternative forms of genes (Something we can inherit) called alleles 2. Each individual inherits 2 copies of these alleles. 2 alleles make up the trait. the 2 can be the same or different. 3. if the individual is heterozygous then one allele determines the individual appearance 4. a gamete (egg/sperm) carries only one allele and as gametes(egg/sperm) combine there are again two alleles.
has two of the same alleles
has two different alleles
phenotype is...
the appearance of an individual
genotype is
the specific genetic information you have. this determines a good portion of your phenotype
What is the law of independent assortment?
what one pair of alleles is doing does not affect another pair of alleles. Ex: color does not affect shape. *as long as alleles are on different chromosomes.
basic unit of energy is
Calorie is what?
the amount of energy needed to raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.
each molecule of glucose yields how much ATP?
how much ATP from glycolysis?
KCal is
basic unit of energy
the law of independent assortment says
what one pair of alleles is doing does not affect another pair of alleles
how much ATP get from glycolysis?
How much atp get from kreb's cycle?
how much atp from electron transport chain?
34 atp
What is the equation for photosynthesis?
6CO2+H2O = C6H12O6 +6CO2
what is an autotroph?
"self feeder" plants get food from sunlight
what is an heterotroph?
get energy from feeding on something else.
chloroplasts are found in what?
plants and eukaryotic algae.
thylakoids are
membranous sacs inside chloroplasts
stroma is
fluid between thylakoid membrane and inner membrane of a chloroplast.
Two stages of photosynthesis are
light reaction calvin cycle
light reaction takes place where?
within the thylakoid membranes
what does light energy turn into?
Chemical energy and O2 is a waste product.
What is the energy from a light reaction stored as?
ATP and NADH. NADH stores energy in by attaching to electrons.
The calvin cycle takes place where?
within the stroma
what happens in the calvin cycle?
CO2 is converted into sugars, using energy from light reactions.
What happens when light (photons) hit chlorophyll?
Chlorophyll donates a high energy electron to other molecules.
What are the functions of the two photosystems?
To use light to put energy into electrons. Creates ATP and NADH
photosystem II does what?
uses light energy to energize electrons and donates them to photosystem I. It also uses up water and makes O2 and hydrogen ions.
photosystem I does what?
-gets electrons from photosystem II from an electron transport chain making ATP. photosystem I gives this electron a boost and makes NADH.
In order to make glucose in the calvin cycle...
you have to go through the cycle 6 times since it only produces 1 CO2 at a time.
each daughter cell in meiosis has how many chromosomes?
half than what it started with.
homologous chromosomes are
pairs of chromosomes that carry the same kind of gene, but the information might be different.
what are autosomes?
chromosomes that do not control the sex of the individual.
how many autosomes do humans have?
in the beginning of meiosis our gametes have what?
Only one member of each homologus pair of chromosomes
what happens during fertilization?
the gametes come together and form the homologus pairs again.
haploid cells are
cells with only half the number of chromosomes, or one of each pair.
diploid cells are
cells with chromosomes in pairs
what happens in prophase I of meiosis? (5)
1. chromotins coil up and make chromosomes visible. 2. homologous chromosomes come together and form tetrads 3. nucleus disappears 4. centrosomes move to opposite sides of cell and spindle forms 5. crossing over can occur
what happens in metaphase I of meiosis? (2)
1. tetrads line up along midline of cell between centrosomes 2. microtubule spindle attaches to pairs
what happens in anaphase I of meiosis? (2)
1. chromosomes move to opposite ends of cell 2. each member of the homologous pair separates and moves to opposite end of cell
what happens in telophase I of meiosis? (2)
1. cytokinesis starts and cell divides in two. 2. nucleus can reform 3. each cell is haploid with half the genetic information needed.
what is the product of meiosis II?
four haploid daughter cells.
what is chiasma?
the site of crossing over
what is karyotyping used for?
to trace genetic defects.
what is nondisjunction?
when chromosomes fail to separate the way that they should in meiosis.
what can breakages in meiosis do?
lead to deletions, duplications and inversions
cancer can often be traced to what?
changes in the somatic chromosomes.
genetic information is carried on
each nucleotide on DNA consists of (3)
1. a sugar 2. a phosphate group 3. a nitrogenous base
what forms the "backbone" of dna?
phosphate and sugar
what are the 4 different nitrogenous bases that DNA uses?
Thymine Adenine Guanine Cytosine
who pieced together the structure of DNA?
Watson and Crick.
The double helix strand of DNA is held together by what?
hydrogen bonds
C bonds with _
A bonds with _
G and C form how many bonds?
A and T form how many bonds?
What is the relation of A and G to C and T?
A and G are twice as big as C and T.
How does DNA replicate?
it "unzips" and an enzyme comes along and matches each C w/ a G and each G with a C and A with T etc.etc.
which enzyme duplicates DNA?
In what specific way does polymerase duplicate DNA?
It unzips part of the DNA and forms a bubble. Then it enters the bubble and starts to replicate. More bubbles get created as it works.
how fast can mammals duplicate DNA?
50 nucleotides a second.
The three steps of making DNA into protein is
1. Allele must be "transcribed" into RNA 2. info from the RNA needs to be "translated" into our protein 3. four nucleotide bases turn into 20 different amino acids
what is the ration of nucleotide base : amino acid?
1 : 3
what kind of reaction is making sugar?
anabolic and endergonic reaction
what are the main types of work in a cell?
chemical, mechanical and transport
a substance that is not a substrate but can bind to the active site is a/an
competitive inhibitor
A membrane protein with a carbohydrate chain is also known as a
when a substance cannot diffuse through the membrane and must move through special proteins this is called
facilitated diffusion
when we move from a low concentration toa high concentration this happens due to
active transport
when oxygen gains an electron it is
the enzyme that converts ADP into ATP by using the hydrogen ion concentration gradient is
ATP synthase
pairs in a tetrad separate during
anaphase I
a human male can produce approximately how many different kinds of sperm?
8, 388, 609
down's syndrome is the result of
an extra chromosome at pair 21

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