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The Enlightenment

Terms

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Copernicus
Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe
Newton
wrote Principia in 1687. Made the 3 laws of mechanics and law of gravity. He also invented calculus.
Kepler
German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion (1571-1630)
social contract
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others
Montesquieu
did not absolute monarchy, thought that power should be divided between branches, thought that there should be a checks and balances system
Bacon
English scientist and Franciscan monk who stressed the importance of experimentation
Descartes
developed the scientific method
Philosophes
member of a group of the enlightenment thinkers who tried to apply the methods of science to the improvement of society
Galileo
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)
"Newtonian Revolution"
the time when everyone became interested in rational ideas because of newton's ideas
Voltaire
Philosopher that defended the freedom of thought.
Deism
the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation
salon
informal social gatherings at which writers, artists, philosophes, and others exchanged ideas
Diderot
Published work of many philosphes in his Encyclopedia. He hoped it would help people think more rationally and critically.
Enlightened despot
Enlightened absolutism. Belief that change and ruling is best coming from the ruler himself.
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
Rousseau
(1712-1778) process of civilization and enlightenment had corrupted human nature, evil of the world founded upon uneven distribution of property, real purpose of society was to nurture better people
Wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women, wrote "Vindication of the Rights of Women"
Bentham
British writer, reformer, and philosopher whose systematic analysis of law and legislation laid the foundations of utilitarianism.
Scientific Method
A research method whereby a problem is identified, a hypothesis stated, and hypothesis is tested

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