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Reagan Modern World History Final Study Guide

There are a few missing, but the ones that are missing are really easy


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John Calvin
Established the most powerful and influential reformed group in the Swiss city of Geneva
a swiss priest. Led the Swiss protestant movement. Stressed salvation through faith alone and denounced many Catholic beliefs and practices, such as purgatory, and the sale of indulgences
Believed that because Galen didn't dissect humans, many of his theorie shouldn't be accepted as truth. By dissecting human bodies, he made huge discoveries. He wrote On the Structure of the Human Body
formulated theories of human anatomy by dissectin dogs and rats
Louis XVI
tried to tax the nobility. Called the estates general for the first time in over 100 years. Beheaded by the Jacobins
French philosopher who believed that thruth must be reached through reason. Wrote Discourse On Method
habeus corpus
a legal principle that requires aurthorities to show reasons why a person should be held in custody and to provide a speedy trial
William Penn
founder of the quaker colony in Pennsylvania. Advocated an assembly of nations committed to world peace
Christopher Columbus
sailed from spain with 3 small ships. First came to the Bahamas. Called the natives indians. Spent three months there.
France's most popular Rennaissance author. Rejected the Middle Age's focus on the afterlife and believed that people should enjoy life to the fullest
James I
believed in Divine Right. Constantly asked parliament for money. Sold titles of nobility when parliament refused to give him anymore money
Concert of Europe
meetings between the Holy Alliance and the Quadruple Alliance. Its objective was to avoid major European conflicts by resolving local problems peacefully
wanted to "purify" the English church of catholic rituals
initiated practice of baptism, or admitting into thier groups, only adults
joint-stock companies
trading venture that sold shares to divide costs and profits
a fleet of warships organized to carry out a mission
the period in which the House of Stuart was restored to the throne
Prince Henry the Navigator
Brought together mapmakers, mathmeticians, and astronomers to study navigation. Sponsored many portugeese explorations. His explorers discovered the Azores, the Madeiras islands, and the cape of verde islands
the editor of the encyclepedie
Peter I/the Great
sought to bring Russia into the mainstream of Europe civilization, forced nobility to adopt ways of Western Europe, ordered members of court to wear western European clothing, set up Russian capital in St. Peterburg, expanded Russia's borders in the south, east, and northwest, often fought Poland, Sweden, or Ottoman Empire, modernized military
Spanish Armada
a force of 130 ships and 33,000 soldiers sent to England
Tennis Court Oath
occured when the representatives from the third estate(who were locked out of the estates general) vowed to not leave a tennis court until they had set up a constitution for France
the tories
those who defended the hereditary monarchy
Johannes Kepler
used Brahe's data with the goal of providing mathematical proof for Copernicus's hypothesis. Proved that planets did move around the sun but discovered that they moved in ellipses. Also found that planets move faster as they get closer to the sun. He was protestant and didn't have to fear the Church
the whigs
those members of parliament who wanted to exclude James from the throne
Diet of Worms
the place where German princes met to discuss Luther's excommunication. Luther ended up coming in and then leaving.
radicals. Supporters of the Sans Cullote. Saw themselves as defenders of the revolution and the voice of the people
Vasco de Gama
Sailed from portugal to India in 1497. Found Muslims trading amazing materials
The Constitution
set up a federal system, in which political authority was divided between the national government and the state governments. Provided a seperation of power between the legislative, judicial, and executive branches of government
orders of society. Determined a person's legal rights and status
Articles of Confederation
under this, the U.S. was a confederation. It was before the constitution
Stamp Act
required that all printed materials had to bear a stamp to show that a direct tax was paid to Great Britan
Francis Bacon
incorporated scientific thought into philosophy. Helped to develop scientific method
Johannes Gutenburg
created the first movable type printer. This allowed for books to be published quicker and for less money. Humanist texts flourished because of it.
Charles I
inheritied England's religious conflicts and political division from his father, James I
John Locke
believed that government was based on a social contract and that it was necessary to establish order. Believed that all people in a state of nature are reasonable and moral and have natural rights
The Great Fear
When the peasants were afraid that the nobles would send robbers to kill them. It was a result of the storming of Bastille
Built his own telescope and discovered that things don't revolve around the sun. He wrote a book and Pope Urban VIII put him on trial. Established universal laws of physics
Oliver Cromwell
led parliament's military forces. Dismissed ineffectual Rump Parliament and placed England under military control
muslims who had become christians, minorities
doctrine of John Calvin that each person's fate is predetermined by God
Charles II
lived in France while he was hunted by English. His return to England was known as the restoration
Leader of the Committee of Public Safety
Charles II
last of the Hapsburgs in Austria, physically and mentally weak. Couldn't bone his wife
Hernan Cortes
landed in Mexico with about 600 men, 16 horses, and a few canons. Alled with local enemies of the Aztec Empire and journeyed inland to Tenotitlan. Seen as a God by the Aztecs. Slaughtered thousands of Aztecs
Ivan IV
the most powerful of the early Russian czars, learned, religious and cruel, witnessed much cruelty as a child, saw treason everywhere, arrested, exiled, or executed many advisors, reduced the boyars power by seizing thier land and putting them under his direct rule. Increased Russia's trade with western Europe and worked to expand borders.
Catherine of Aragon
married to Henry VIII. Didn't give birth to a son. Her brother was the Holy Roman Emperor and thats why the pope would not allow the divorce
Time of Troubles
The period from 1598 where there were noble fueds over the throne, peasant revolts, and foreign invasion plagued Russia. Ended by an assembly of clergy, nobles, and townsmen who elected Michael Romanov as czar
Hugo Grotius
a Dutch journalist who called for an international code based on natural law. Believed that one body of rules could reduce the dealing of governments to a system of reason and order
Henry VII
first Tudor monarch, used shrewd maneuvers to disarm rivals and increase family prestige, helped rebuild English commercial prosperity by encouraging the expansion of foreign trade and promoting the collection of taxes and careful government spending
the Russian nobles. Much of thier power was taken by Ivan
Phillip II
the most powerful monarch in Spanish history
began his questioning in a time when few people dared to question age-old beliefs. Believed that the earth was round and rotated on an axis, and that the sun was the center of the universe
Intolerable Acts
closed Boston Harbor until the tea from the Boston Tea party was paid for. Also greatly reduced the colonist's rights of self government. They couldn't have gatherings more than once a year
Immanuel Kant
believed that reason couldn't answer the problems of metaphysics. Asserted that reality consisted of seperate physical and spiritual worlds and that the methods for knowing varied greatly in these two realms.
Tycho Brahe
Danish astronomer who set up obervatory to study heavenly bodies and accumulated much data on planetary movements
the secret police force for Russia's Ivan IV. They were those that were loyal to Ivan. Therefore, they recieved much land and terrorized the others in the country.
ruled in Brandenburg but had no real power. The 30 years war weakened the assembly and allowed thier family to consolidate thier absolute rule in Prussia
Henry VIII
most powerful of all Tudor monarchs, fought wars in Europe and made England a naval power
Francisco Pizarro
invaded the Inca Empire in present-day Peru. Aided by Native American allies, he captured Atahualpa, the Incan ruler, and had thousands of Incans massacred. Killed Atahualpa even though a ransom for his release was paid
Bill of Rights
stated that the king could not raise taxes or maintain an army without the consent of Parliament and could not suspend laws. Declaired that parliament had to be held often. Guarenteed the right to trial by jury, outlawed cruel and unusual punishment , and limited amount of bail money that could be required.
served as the host of the Congress of Vienna. Believed that in order to reestablish European stability, Europe should be restored to the way it was prior to the French Revolution.
Henry VIII
quarrelled with the Pope over the divorce of his wife who would not give birth
jews who had converted to christianity, minorities
Great Migration
when all of the Puritans came to the colonies because they were being persecuted by James I
Ferdinand Magellan
circumnavigated the globe. Died in the Phillipines
Petition of Right
severely limited King Charle's powers
National Assembly
took an oath, the Tennis Court Oath, promising not to disband until they had written a constitution for France
Thomas Hobbes
used the idea of natural law to argue that absolute monarchy was the best form of government
Baron de Montesquieu
a contributer to the Encyclopedie and one of the most learned of the philisophes in political matters. Believed that power should be divided amongst a legislative, executive, and judicial branch of government
had just won the throne from his brother when Francisco Pizarro and other Spaniards arrived. Got captured and killed
Reign of Terror
the time period in which the Jacobins set out to crush all oppostion in France. 85% of 40,000 people were killed during this time
certificates issued by the church that were said to reduce or even cancel punishment for a person's sins
stressed salvation by faith alone and the Bible's role as the only source of religious truth
Act of Union
united England and Scotland into a new country called Great Britan. The Scots gave up thier parliament but gained representation in the English parliament
Declaratory Act
through this, the British parliament reasserted its right to pass laws governing colonies
started as young general. Joined french leaders in a coup d' etat. Made every citizen pay taxes, made education free, and applied dictatorship before becoming Emperor of France
the focus of the citizens fear that the king would disolve the National Assembly
Henry Hudson
an English navigator who claimed land for the Dutch along the Atlantic coast of North America
the roundheads
supporters of Parliament and puritans in the south and east of England
Navigation Acts
stated that the colonists were required to export certain products only to Great Britan or other British colonies, where they had to pay a duty. And that all good going to or coming from the colonies were to be carried by ships built in Britan
a group of moderates. Felt that the revolution had gone far enough and wanted to protect the wealthy middle class from radical attacks. Organized support to resist strength against the mountain
Madame de Pompadour
the most celebrated of the wealthy and influential women who ran salons
National Convention
wrote France's first democratic constitution, which placed power in a single national legislature based on universal male suffrage
Cardinal Richeleiu
played a crucial role in strengthening the French monarchy and the Catholic Church in France. His goal was to supress the nobility and to forticate the monarchy. Accomplishments: suppressed the nobility by denying them roles in state affairs, destroyed fortified towns, and refused call estates general, centralizion state, attempted to unify
Fransesco Petrarca
wrote sonnets that expressed his love for a woman named Laura, who died during the Black Death
criticized what he saw as his era's excessive realiance on reason and claimed that people should rely more on instinct and emotion. Believed that humans were naturally good by that civilization and institution was corrupt. Wrote THE SOCIAL CONTRACT.
the Middle Passage
an enslaved person's journey from Africa to the Americas
Isaac Newton
employed the scientific method in science and math. Published his theories of gravity and other scientific concepts in Prinipia. Developed calculus to prove his theory of gravity. One of the most influential people to modern science
the cavaliers
the nobles and landowners in the north and west that fought for Charles. Many were armed horsemen
the Estates General
made up of delegates representing each estate.
farmers with small landownings
scholars who promoted humanism, accepted classical beliefs and wanted to use them to renew thier society
Martin Luther
Germon monk. Started the protestant reformation. Thought that a person could be made just, or good, simply by faith alone. This was called the justification by faith.
Bartholomeu Dias
Left portugal in 1487 to find very Southern tip of Africa, which ended up as Cape of Good Hope. This proved that ships could reach Asia from there.
Catherine II
seized the throne from weak husband. Greatly influenced by Western European thinkers, considered freeing serfs, significantly expanded borders to the south and secured a warm-water port on the Black Sea

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