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Ch 16


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Nicolas Copernicus
Polish astronomer who proposed the theory that Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
Tycho Brahe
Danish astronomer whose astronomical observations formed the basis for Kepler's laws of planetary motion.
Johannes Kepler
He formulated three laws to describe how the planets revolve around the sun.
Galileo Galilei
The first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights fall at the same rate.
Sir Isaac Newton
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and the theory of universal gravitation.
Greek physician and writer. His theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Renaissance.
Credited with developing a mineral-based chemical approach to human health problems.
Margaret Cavendish
She criticized the theories of the Royal Society of London and Thomas Hobbes.
Maria Winkelmann
She discovered the comet of 1702.
Rene Descartes
Considered the father of analytic geometry and the founder of modern rationalism.
Cartesian Dualism
The doctrine that to every mental change there is a concomitant but causally unconnected physical change.
Francis Bacon
Proposed a theory of scientific knowledge that came to be known as the inductive method.
Benedict de Spinoza
Dutch philosopher and theologian whose best-known work is Ethics (1677).
Blaise Pascal
French mathematician, philosopher and inventor. Invented the adding machine and syringe.
The English Royal Society
English society through which the British government has supported science.
French Royal Academy of Sciences
Founded in 1666 by Louis XIV to encourage French scientific research.
Works produced within this movement are characterized by unorthodox structure and illogical sequences.

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