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APEC 16-17


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wrote Principia in 1687. Made the 3 laws of mechanics and law of gravity. He also invented calculus.
Wrote Dictionary. A religous skeptic who attacked superstition, religous attitudes, and dogmatism.
Advanced the treatment and diagnosis of disease. Thought that diseases were caused by chemical imbalances.
Belief that human beings had been created as divine creative power, but had freely chosen to enter the material world.
enlightenment author, wrote "Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds", novel designed to explain science to the common reader. Also wrote "Eulogies of Scientists", comparing rational scientists with fanatical priests.
(1723-1790) wrote 'Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations', believed economic liberty was foundation of natural economic system, discouraged mercentialism - the best way to encourage economic growth was to let individuals pursue economic self interest, founder of laissez-faire thought
john Wesley
English clergyman and founder of Methodism (1703-1791)
Wrote Discourse on Method. Believed in Cartesian Dualism where the body can be doubted, but the mind can't so the two must be radically different. Used deductive reasoning (reasoning through previously know facts) to come to conclusions.
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
English Royal Societies
independent from government
used animals, not human bodies, to study anatomy; said liver and lungs were center or circ. system and there were two seperate blood systems
Compiled the first detailed observational data on planetary motion (mars), without a telescope.
Wrote Treatise on Human Nature. Said that observation made possible the study of man.
German baroque organist and contrapuntist
Wrote Encyclopedia. Vicously attacked Christianity calling it "dogmatic" and the "most fanatical religion of all". His Encyclopedia spread Enlightened ideas very far.
(1743-1794) advocated liberal economy, free education, constitutionalism, equal rights for women/all races. Infinitesimals and calculus. Died mysteriously in prison during French Revolution.
(1689-1755) wrote 'Spirit of the Laws', said that no single set of political laws was applicable to all - depended on relationship and variables, supported division of government
French Academy
an honorary group of French writers and thinkers supported by the French government
Joseph II
ruled with mother, Maria Theresa, as coregent-greatest of Enlightened Despots-emphasis on reforms-abolished serfdom-freedom of religion and civic rights to Protestants and Jews-allowed freedom of press-reformed judicial system-abolished torture-expanded state schools-established hospitals, insane asylums, poorhouses, and orphanages-parks and gardens-German official language
Paul D'Holbach, a wealthy German born, argued that human beings were machines completely determined by outside forces. His aggressive atheism and determination dealt with the unity of the Enlightenment movement a severe blow. Published his philosophically radical words anonymously in Netherlands.
the inventor of the telescope also held many believes about the church and proved inertia to be true along with dialogue and the starry messenger agreed with Copernicus about a heliocentric universe
fanciful but graceful asymmetric ornamentation in art and architecture that originated in France in the 18th century
Wrote Metamorphosis of the Insects of Surinam. Just wanted to study science.
French painter (1684-1721) "Pilgrimage to Cythera"
Wrote Novum Organum & The Great Instauration. Father of the modern scientific method. Used inductive reasoning (reasoning through expirements). Thought the goal of science was to conquere nature.
"ON THE CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS", believed punishments should serve only as deterrents, not exercises of brutality, opposed capital punishment
Wrote On the Motion of the Heart and Blood. Made lots of discoveries about the circulation of blood including that he found the heart is the center of the circulatory system.
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation
Wrote On the Fabric of the Human Body. Dissected human bodies to better understand them. He disproved Galen's theory of the Liver being the center of the circulatory system.
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women
PENSEES: Known for his wager, said Christianity is the only religion to recognize a person's true state. Applied cortesian Dualism to Christianity
German philosopher whose synthesis of rationalism and empiricism, in which he argued that reason is the means by which the phenomena of experience are translated into understanding, marks the beginning of idealism. His classic works include Critique of Pure Reason (1781) and Critique of Practical Reason (1788), in which he put forward a system of ethics based on the categorical imperative.
Smashed the geocentric theory to pieces. Had three laws of planetary motion: 1) Planets did not rotate in perfect circles 2) The closer the planet is to the sun the faster it moves 3) The larger the planet the slower it moves
Wrote Observations upon Expiremental Philosophy & Grounds of Natural Philosophy. Didn't popularize woman science but merely wanted to participate in scientific debates.
believe religion comes from the heart and God is involved
(1712-1778) process of civilization and enlightenment had corrupted human nature, evil of the world founded upon uneven distribution of property, real purpose of society was to nurture better people, DISCOURSWE ON THE ORGINS OF THE INEQUALITY OF TE SOCIAL CONTRACT and EMILE: education should further and not restrict a child's instincts, said women were naturally different form men (although they are actually better and men were in denial)
injunction against government interference with trade, it emerged as an economic ideology which advocates minimal state intervention in the economy.
Italian painter (1696-1770)
a prolific German baroque composer remembered best for his oratorio Messiah (1685-1759)
Wrote Ethics Demonstrated in the Geometric Manner. Rejected Cartesian Dualism and suported Pantheism where "god" is a singular self-subsistent substance.
Wrote Philosophic Letters on the English & Treatise on Toleration. He admired the English freedom of the press, and religous toleration. He criticized France because of its royal absolutism and lack of freedom of thought.
"The Marriage of Figaro," "Don Giovanni," and "The Magic Flute"---child prodigy whose successful life started at six and he wrote his first opera at age 12. He excelled, but died at age 36.
A woman who was a studied astronomy, but was bared from the Berlin Academy.
Alexandrian astronomer who proposed a geocentric system of astronomy that was undisputed until Copernicus (2nd century AD)
"The Creation" and "The Seasons"---He wrote 104 symphonies and when he visited England, he wrote concerts for the public. "The Creation" and "The Seasons" are both dedicated to the common people.
wrote 'On the Revolutions of Heavenly Shperes', heliocentric view rather than geocentric

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