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History- Exam 1

Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
ransom
an amount of money you must pay in order to have something returned to you.
recant
to take back what you said, your views, and your beliefs.
excommunicate
to be kicked out of the church
sanction
oppose penalties for poor behaviors
heretics
someone who goes against the church's teachings and beliefs
Renaissance
a time period
friction
tension between two countries
humanitarian
someone who improves anther person's standards and qualities of living
privateer
people hired by king on ships to as much as they can.
patron
financial supporter of the arts
Francisco Pizarro
A conquistador who created alliances with the Incans, in present day Peru, and captured the Incans chief to hold him for ransom, but ended up killing him anyway.
"Justification by Faith."- Martin Luther
This quote means that you could only go to heaven through god.
" The end Justifies the mean."- Machiavelli (The Prince)
Do whatever you can in order to reach your goal.
Rafael Sanzio
He was born and died on July 6th and was known for the Sistine Madonna and the Goldfinch. His ares in art included church paintings, portraits, and pictures of saints.
Henry "The Navigator."
A navigator known for his exploration of the West coast of Africa when trying to find a route to asia. He also set up a school of navigation.
veto
to reject a proposal of the united nations
circumnavigate
to sail around the world
Peninsulares
They made up the highest class and consisted of viceroys, conquistadors, priest, and others from spain.
revolution
an overthrow of government or usual ways of life
Inflation
Rise of Prices, due to increase of demand, a lower supply, and the value of money is lower
Mulattoes
The Mulattoes were the lowest class and were the offsprings of spanish and africans.
Hernand Cortes
He created alliances with the Aztecs, in present day Mexico, by fooling them and then later on took advantage by conquering them
heliocentric
sun was center of the solar system and not the earth
Joint Stock Company
Trading companies where profit is shared and sold to investors.
Mercantilism
Theory which believed that if you had the most gold and silver you were the wealthiest and most powerful. Also you must export more goods than imported.
Ban Ki-Moon
Current security general of the United Nations
Baldassare Castiglione
Balsassare was an artist during the renaissance who was sent to the court of Lodovico in Milan. He wrote the book of courtier (manners of those associated in court) and the Book of Etiquette (Royal Court and ideal man).
compact
a written agreement with laws and regulations that people are expected to follow.
Rene Descartes
A scientist who emphasized human reasoning as the best way to understand things. The quote, "I think therefore I am, " is related to him.
sovereignty or sovereign
ability to make decision on its own
astrolabe
An instrument that determines the latitude at sea
Ferdinand Magellan
He looked for another way to sail to asia by sailing around south america. Because of this exploration, the strait of magellan was named for him.
Francis Bacon
A famous scientist who stressed experimentation and observation as the best way to learn.
General Assembly
An Organ where all members of the UN belonged to. The are required to meet once a year and their goal is to make recommendations.
Line of Demarcation
A longitude line that the pope drew the new world in order to settle dispute between portugal and spain. They listened to the pope because they were both catholic, and as a result the west was for spain and the east for portugal.
Christopher Columbus
Columbus was an Italian navigator hired by the queen and king. He believed the world was round and not flat, so he sailed west to reach india, but funds the new world instead.
immunity
a resistance to a disease
Security Council
An Organ consisting of 15 members, 10 non-permanent and 5 permanent. The 5 permanent members include China, France, Russia, Great Britain, and the USA. Each member has the ability to abstain, appose sanctions, and expel.
atrocities
an extremely wicked act, usually involving violence
capitalism
the idea of investing money to make a profit
annul
to cancel as if it never happened before
Donatello
Donatello lived alot earlier than Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael. He is well known for sculpting and was the first to do the life size sculpting of man on horse.
collective security
countries work together to achieve piece
scapegoats
placing blame on others
Utopian
An idealistic person
indulgences
When you seek forgiveness for the sins committed.
papal supremacy
papal supremacy is when the pope is supreme.
theocracy
A type of government ran by the church
heresy
saying our writing information that goes against the church's teaching
vernacular
The common language for the everyday people
alliance
countries working together to achieve collective security
abstain
refusal to vote
conquistador
A spanish conquerer
Michelangelo Duonarotti
A painter during the renaissance who painted the sistine chapel which took 4 years, the pieta, and the david. He was famous mainly for painting and sculpting.
Mestizos
They made up the lower class and were the offsprings of the spanish and Natives.
Atlantic Charter
The atlantic charter was a document formulated by President Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill. It stated the goals of the life after WWII.
Winston Churchhill
Prime Minister of Great Britain, Included in the Big 3, and he also wrote the Atlanta charter.
Woodrow Wilson
President of the united states at the time of the League of nations was created.
Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo was an italian cartographer who realized that Columbus found a new world. He then went back to write about his findings, and in return a German cartographer made a map and labeled it America, only to realize he made a mistake.
Isaac Newton
A famous scientist he created the theory of gravity. His ideas soon lead to calculus.
Leonardo da Vinci
He was nicknamed "Renaissance man" and was known for his areas in painting, sculpting, science, engineering, and the human body. He did the mona lisa, the last supper, and designed the tank.
secular
having to worldy, rather than religious matters
disarmament
reducing, limiting, or banishing weapons or size of military
navigator
A navigator is a person like a leader, who guides you in the right direction.
city-state
a city that takes on the meaning and responsibility as that of a state. It is made up of the city and its surrounding lands
Creoles
They made up the middle class and were the offsprings of Peninsulares. The Creoles ran plantations and owned mines.
cartographer
Mapmakers who made accurate maps of sea, etc.
Utopia
The idealistic society or place
Protestant Reformation
A period of time when people decided to reform the catholic church
Niccolo Machiavelli
A renaissance writer who wrote about politics and patriotism. The prince is a book written by him which talks about how to gain power and hold on to it, and through this book "The end justifies the means," was created.
renaissance
a rebirth to get out of the dark ages
Franklin D. Roosevelt
President of the United States at the time of the United Nations and was included in the Big 3

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