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Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

Terms

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Salon
in paris rich women would have social gatherings in these rooms, shared observations on literature, science, and philosophy.
Montesquieu
applied "critical method" to history and politics, in favor of liberty and against tyranny, constitutions of france and the US were based off of his theories.
Wollstonecraft
writer in the 18th century, expressed opinions about women's rights and education.
Social contract
Rousseau's political theory, two fundamentals- general will and popular sovereignty (political authority over oneself).
Enlightened Despot
enlightened rulers used the ideas of the enlightenment to rule their territories; religious toleration, freedom of speech, emphasis on education.
Descartes
french philosopher, mathematician, scientist, and writer; cartesian plane named after him, helped develop geometry, algebra, and calculus.
Copernicus
theorized that the planets and stars revolved around the sun; known as the Copernican theory, destroyed basic Aristotelian physics.
"Newtonian Revolution"
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Galileo
conducted experiments, formed law of inertia, famous for his studies of motion and mechanics
Bacon
popularized the "scientific method," said "knowledge is power."
Bentham
influenced development of liberalism, believed in equal rights, no slavery, animal rights etc. in favor of individual and economic freedoms
Kant
german philosopher, developed idealism (persuit of higher goals)
Scientific Method
a systematic way to acquire new information, invented by Francis Bacon
Deism
belief in the existence of god who created the world, however does not control or influence life in the world.
Philosophes
a group of intellectual thinkers, set on "bringing the light of knowledge to their ignorant fellow creatures," asked fundamental philosophical questions
Rousseau
believed in individual freedom, his ideas had impact on development of child pyschology, and modern education.
Diderot
wrote Encyclopedia that questioned existence of god, in conflict with church and state; brought about enlightened thinking, summed up the new world view of enlightenment, included many articles from drifferent writers and scientists of that time
Kepler
Brahe's assistant, formulated three famous laws of planetary motion, proved his theories mathematically.
Newton
integrated all of his predecessor's ideas, created law of universal gravitation.
Adam Smith
his work built the modern foundation of economics, free trade, and capitalism.
Voltaire
challlenged christian theology, believed in religious toleration, lived with madame du chatelet.

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