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PSG: BRPT Review


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Right / Left Outer Canthus
Right / Left Anterior Tibialis
N/O flow
Nasal/Oral flow
Transcutaneous CO2
End-tidal CO2
Pes or peso
Esophageal pressure monitor
The functional changes associated with or resulting from disease or injury
The anatomic or functional manifestations of a disease
The branch of medicine that deals with the causes or origins of disease
Lateral recumbent
A position in which the patient lies on one side with the under arm behind the back and the upper thigh flexed (also called Sims' position)
Lateral decubitus
Laying on either right or left side
Plantar flexion
Movement of the foot that flexes the foot or toes downward toward the sole
Flexion of the foot in an upward direction
Pertaining to the front of the body
Pertaining to the back of the body
Capillary refill
Pressure is applied to the nail bed until it turns white; should turn red w/in 2 sec if good circulation
Combination of kyphosis & scoliosis
Emotionally unstable
A nervous tissue cell that transmits & receives nervous impulses
The place at which a nervous impulse passes from one neuron to another
A substance (such as norepinephrine or acetylcholine) that transmits nerve impulses across a synapse
Post-synaptic potentials
Changes in the membrane potential of the neuron that receives information at a synapse.
Brain stem function
It controls various autonomic functions such as respiration and the regulation of heart rhythms as well as perceptual functions such as the primary aspects of sound localization.
Lower part of the brainstem; controls autonomic functions (such as breathing and heartbeat), relays nerve messages from the brain to the spinal cord, control of sneeze-, cough-, swallow-, suck-reflex, blinking, and of vomiting.
Part of the autonomic nervous system; relays sensory information between the cerebellum and cerebrum.
Peripheral nervous system
Part of the nervous system; consists of the nerves and neurons that reside or extend outside the central nervous system; limbs and organs
Parasympathetic nervous system
Conserves energy as it slows the heart rate, increases intestinal and gland activity, and relaxes sphincter muscles in the gastrointestinal tract
Sympathetic nervous system
Fight or flight response; acts primarily on the cardiovascular system
Normal heart rate for adults
60 to 100 bpm
Normal heart rate for pediatrics
70 to 120 bpm
Inspiratory muscles
Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles
Expiratory muscles
Generally a passive process, however active or forced exhalation is achieved by the abdominal and the internal intercostal muscles.
Accessory muscles of ventilation
Sternocleidomastoid, platysma, and the strap muscles of the neck
Tidal volume (Vt)
Amount of air breathed in or out during normal respiration. It is normally from 450 to 500 mL
Functional residual capacity (FRC)
The amount of air left in the lungs after a tidal breath out
Minute ventilation
7.5 L/minute
A cell or group of cells that transduce a chemical signal into an action potential
Action potential
A wave of electrical discharge that travels along the membrane of a cell; rapidly carrying information within and between tissues; are used most extensively by the nervous system for communication between neurons and to transmit information from neurons to other body tissues such as muscles and glands
Phrenic nerve
Provides motor innervation to the diaphragm and is thus responsible for the act of breathing
Intrathoracic pressure
Decreases with inspiration & increases with expiration
Formed during respiration when oxygen binds to the heme component of the protein hemoglobin in red blood cells; this process occurs in the alveoli of the lungs
Hering-Breuer reflex
Function to facilitate termination of inspiration; initiated by stretch receptors (sensors) located in the smooth muscles surrounding both large and small airways
PaCO2 norm
35-45 mmHg
PaO2 norm
80-100 mmHg
pH norm
HCO3 norm
22-28 mEq/L
Partial pressure of carbon dioxide in solution in arterial blood
Partial pressure of oxygen in solution in arterial blood
Calculated value of bicarbonate
Mastoid process
A large, bony prominence on the base of the skull behind the ear
Upper jaw
Lower jaw
Masseter muscle
Muscle running from eye forward to jaw; one of the muscles used for chewing
Temporalis muscle
Muscle being the eye back to ear; one of the muscles used for chewing
Temporomandibular joint
The movable joint between the mandible (lower jaw bone) and temporal bone
Lumpy clusters of spongy tissue that sit in the back of the nose above the roof the mouth
Tonsils are glandular tissue located on both sides of the throat
Corneo-retinal potential
A small voltage between the front and back of the eye
Lower esophageal sphincter
Muscular area where the esophagus meets the stomach
Anterior tibialis
Muscle that spans the length of the tibia
Extensor digitalis
Muscle for the extension of the wrist & fingers
Series of involuntary muscle contractions
Any disease that affects the neurons of the nervous system; often results in numbness & abnormal sensations
Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
Often colloquially referred to as "mini stroke"; caused by the temporary disturbance of blood supply to a restricted area of the brain, resulting in brief neurologic dysfunction that usually persists for less than 24 hours
Cerebral Palsy
Cerebral palsy (CP) describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitations that are attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain. The motor disorders of cerebral palsy are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, cognition, communication, perception, and/or behavior, and/or by a seizure disorder.
Partial paralysis of one side of the body
Generalized seizures
Generalized seizures affect both cerebral hemispheres (sides of the brain) from the beginning of the seizure. They produce loss of consciousness, either briefly or for a longer period of time, and are sub-categorized into several major types: generalized tonic clonic; myoclonic; absence; and atonic.
Localized seizures
In [localized] partial seizures the electrical disturbance is limited to a specific area of one cerebral hemisphere (side of the brain). Partial seizures are subdivided into simple partial seizures (in which consciousness is retained); and complex partial seizures (in which consciousness is impaired or lost). Partial seizures may spread to cause a generalized seizure, in which case the classification category is partial seizures secondarily generalized.
Myoclonic seizures
Myoclonic seizures are rapid, brief contractions of bodily muscles, which usually occur at the same time on both sides of the body. Occasionally, they involve one arm or a foot. People usually think of them as sudden jerks or clumsiness.
Tonic-clonic seizures
Generalized tonic clonic seizures (grand mal seizures) are the most common and best known type of generalized seizure. They begin with stiffening of the limbs (the tonic phase), followed by jerking of the limbs and face (the clonic phase).

During the tonic phase, breathing may decrease or cease altogether, producing cyanosis (blueing) of the lips, nail beds, and face. Breathing typically returns during the clonic (jerking) phase, but it may be irregular. This clonic phase usually lasts less than a minute.
Absence seizures
Absence seizures (also called petit mal seizures) are lapses of awareness, sometimes with staring, that begin and end abruptly, lasting only a few seconds. There is no warning and no after-effect.

More common in children than in adults, absence seizures are frequently so brief that they escape detection, even if the child is experiencing 50 to 100 attacks daily. They may occur for several months before a child is sent for a medical evaluation.
Partial complex seizures
Complex partial seizures affect a larger area of the brain than simple partial seizures and they affect consciousness.

During a complex partial seizure, a person cannot interact normally with other people, is not in control of his movements, speech, or actions; doesn't know what he's doing; and cannot remember afterwards what happened during the seizure.
Angina pectoris
Condition characterized by chest pain that occurs when the muscles of the heart receive an insufficient supply of oxygen
Sinus arrhythmia
The normal increase in heart rate that occurs during inspiration
First-degree AV block
Looks like normal sinus rhythm except that the PR interval is longer than normal
Second-degree AV block, type I (Mobitz type I. AKA Wenckebach)
PR interval gets gradually longer with each successive beat until finally a P wave fails to conduct to the ventricles
Second-degree AV block, type I (Mobitz type II)
Occasional dropped QRS interval
Third-degree AV block
P wave & QRS complex are regular but have different rates
Raynaud's phenomenon
A condition resulting in discoloration of the fingers and/or the toes after exposure to changes in temperature (cold or hot) or emotional events
Respiratory acidosis
Respiratory alkalosis, characterized by a raised pH and a decreased PCO2, is due to over ventilation caused by hyperventilating, pain, emotional distress, or certain lung diseases that interfere with oxygen exchange
Respiratory alkalosis
Respiratory alkalosis, characterized by a raised pH and a decreased PCO2, is due to over ventilation caused by hyperventilating, pain, emotional distress, or certain lung diseases that interfere with oxygen exchange
Metabolic acidosis
Metabolic acidosis is characterized by a lower pH and decreased HCO3-; the blood is too acidic on a metabolic/kidney level. Causes include diabetes, shock, and renal failure.
Metabolic alkalosis
Metabolic acidosis is characterized by a lower pH and decreased HCO3-; the blood is too acidic on a metabolic/kidney level. Causes include diabetes, shock, and renal failure.
A condition where there is too much carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood; generally caused by hypoventilation, lung disease, or diminished consciousness.
Excess retention of carbon dioxide in the body resulting from ventilatory impairment.
Low oxygen in the blood
Pathological condition in which the body as a whole or region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply; often happens with high altitudes.
Bullous lung disease
Abnormal anterior-to-posterior curvature of the upper spine; gives a humpback appearance
Lateral curvature of the spine
Inward curvature of the lumbar spine; has a swayback appearance

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