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Hist 2010


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Who is Richard Hakloyt?
Wrote "The Principle Navigations"
What are The Principal Navigations?
They were a collection of accounts of explorers.
Sea Dogs
Illegal traders: Sir William Hawkins, Sir John Hawkins, and Sir Francis Srake.
"Singeing the King's Beard"
Refered to illegal trading with countries behind the kings back.
The Greater Endlanders
Englishmen who vocally and actively supported colonization in the new world and keeping Spain out.
The Londoners
People King James wanted to establish in new world. Business men.
The West England Merchants
Merchants sent to new world.
Roanoke Island
Where Rowley attempted to est. a millitary.
Virginia Dare
1st white child born in the new world.
1st establishment. built along James River. Virginia company did business here.
John Smith
Saves Jamestown. "No work. No eat." policy. negociated with Powahatans.
Captured John Smith and release. Chief's daughter is Pocahontas.
Daughter of Powhatan Chief. Saves John Smith
John Rolfe
Works with Pocahontas to market tobacco.
Dale's Laws
1. Keep Sabbath and worship regularly.
2. King was not to be slandered.
3. company's laws were to be obeyed w/o question.
4. No trade w/ indians w/o company approval.
5. Wash water not to be thrown out near source of water.
6. Latrines to be built and used no less than 1/4 mile from fort.
7. Men were to keep their households clean.
Starving Time
winter of 1609-1610 when John Smith left Jamestown. People starved. 400/500 died.
Religious colony by Pilgrims aka "Separatists." 1620. All men signed the "Mayflower Compact."
Men, women, children who left England for Religious freedom. 1/2 died 1st winter.
Fancy word for Pilgrims.
Mayflower Compact
All men of Plymouth signed to protect and govern the settlers, but still under the King.
William Bradford
Plymouth's 1st gov. for 30 years.
Council of New England
Sold land grants; sold the land grant for the Mass. Bay Colony.
Massachusetts Bay
Religious, social, economic colony. Puritans inhabitted.
John Winthrop
1st gov. of Mass. Bay
successfully combined religious freedom and comercial success in Mass. Bay.
Great Migration
20,000 Puritans who move between 1629-1642.
town meeting
used as primary way of commuinication. usually in church house after service.
Persons who had a religious experience called a "conversion relation."
conversion relation
a religious experience
Old Deluder Act
Any town with 50 or more homes had to designate one father for whom children could come for instruction. With 100 or more, had to have a grammer schools to prepare students for universiy level of work.
Puritanism's covenants and stages
conenants wer agreements between God and His people: 1) works 2) redemption 3) grace
stages were: 1) Election
(selection by God) 2) vocation (where God offers grace) 3) justification (redemption of a lost soul) 4)Saintification (a new state of doctrine) 5) Glorification (achieved at death)
Hivings Out
Extensive disagreements among Puritan religion. Questions missions.
Roger Williams
Not pleased with Puritan Theocracy. Felt Gov't would corrupt church.
Anne Hutchinson
Tried for heracy when she felt the felt the Puritan preachers were not holy men.
Fundamental Order of CT
1639. Not entirely democratic, but better than Mass. Didn't have to be full church member to be a gov't official.
"a little commonwealth"
John Demos' thoughts about the core family.
femme sole
single woman; never married, or was divorced or widowed.
femme convert
the rights of a woman were her husband's rights. No property rights outside of her husband unless there was a prenumpt. No rights in household property.
indenture/indentured servant
a contract that held a person to servitude for a one way ticket to America.
Half-way Convenant
[Puritans] all children of all baptized members could be baptized whether they were saints or not. by 3rd or 4th generation there were more 1/2 way convenant.
Alabany Plan of Union
Proposed a unified but limited administration over all the colonies that coordinated their mutual defense during the French-Indian War.
Virginia Plan
(Large State Plan) each stae rep. in congress by population. strong nat'l gov't. bicameral legislation. strong congress. Executive and Judicial branches elected by congress.
Praying Towns
more religious tolerance.
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New Englend
Est. Praying towns
Peqout War
Peqout tribe angry about white invasion. attack 2 ships and kill 2 sailors. counter attack by Puritans.
King Phillip's War
ended Indian residency everywhere but Maine and Canadian border. The distrust ended Praying Towns.
King Phillips War
Justice of the Peace
A Judge
Lord Baltimore
wanted a Catholic proprietary colony. land given to hime by king Charles.
Act of Religious Toleration
Passed 1649 to order peace among different faiths.
the process a settles body would go through in order to adjust to the new world.
Bacon's Rebellion
wants to declare war on indians who attacked his settlement. Govenor said no. Bacon decides to raid Jamestown where he dies.
eventually defined by race. "Gave whites a common bond."
Putnam vs Porter families
During witch trials. Putnam rural, political ties gone, pro-indepentent Salem Village, pro village's own meeting house. Porter lived in Salem town, still pwerful, anti parris(the minister), anti independent salem village.
Spectral evidence
ghosts suposedly seen during the trials. Could be someone's spirit coming to visit even though they are still alive.
Restoration Colonies
VA, NC, SC, NY, NJ, Penn,
New Netherlands
NY, est by Dutch. Big fur trade.
Patroons = wealthy laand owners. Patroonships = the manners owned by Patroons.
Steven Van Renssellear
Wealthy Patroon- owned 10s of thousands of acres.
Peter Stuyvesant
Gov. of New Netherlands who surrenders to the Naval fleet. THe Dutch stayed, but under English lifestyle and rule.
The Duke's Law
Charter of Liberty and Privilidges. gave assembly right to meet and give citizens of NY the same rights as Englishmen.
Berkeley and Carteret
Given NJ by James Duke
William Penn
Quaker, wanted to est a holy experiment and make money. Est Pennsylvania and Philadelphia. Felt his experiment failed.
-"The Society of Friends"
-looked at spirit, not money
-Used "thee" and "thou"
-didn't believe in social betters
-equal genders
-Inner light within
Inner Light
The soul. belief of the Quakers.
Middle Colonies
NY, NJ, PA, Del
The most AMerican colonies b/c rep. gov., relig tolerance, and freedom of conscious
Dominion of New England
created when King James consolidated Mass, NH, CT, RI, NJ, NY.
Edmond Andros
unpopular army officer appointed by King James to run the Dominion of England. very strict. lost power during a bloodless revolution.
Leisler's Rebellion
when Leisler and Nicholson were convicted of treason b/c they would not hand over the keys to NY to the new Gov's assistant.
removing the bark from around a tree. Kills it.
James Oglethorpe
Interested in a place of refuge for people in debtor's prison. meant to be a buffer colony (GA)
Englands economic philosophy which also has political overtones. based on the assumption that the colonies exist to enhance the power/wealth of Mother Country by $ to the treasury. Which means power.
Navigation Acts (Trade Laws)
1. Trade limiteed to British ships with 2/3 brit crews.
2. enumerated goods- items to be traded within Brit. empire.
3. 1663-any European goods going to colonies had to go through England 1st. tax usually added.
4. Parlament decided to pay modest bounties for certain goods.
"colonial elite"
after 1720. once one "made it" they had act like a gentleman and repay the society that helped you reach your goals. Women could relax. Men get educated.
colonial assemblies
paid the govenor of the colony and set taxes.
The Great Awakening
Revival movement btwn 1730s-1740s. Protestantism was changed forever.
Johnathan Edwards
fire and brimstone preacher during The Great Awakening.
George Whitefield
1739 Great Awakenings preacher who was bold, drew crowds (3-4,000), preached wherever he could.
The Enlightenment
Held positive belief about man's ability to search for useful wisdom. Many new inventions to help with efficincy of time. solved problems for cities rationaly, built colleges, theatres, services, and libraries.
Diest thought
believed God created the universe, and left it to run on it's own.
salutary neglect
The poor manner England treated the colonies by no representation and high taxation.
New Jersey Plan (Small State Plan)
unicameral leg- each state has one vote. Gave congress power to compel states to pay taxes. Congress would elect exec who would appoint a court.
Great Compromise
Saved the Constitutional Convention. each state in senate had = rep. each state in house had rep by proportion. slave = 3/5 a person. census every 10 yrs. lower house would generate bills of revenue
Declaration of Independence
shifted blame from Parlament to the king. described his shortcoming, states individual rights. signed July 4, 1776
writs of assistance
the right for troops to search houses without cause for illegally imported goods.
Sugar Act
needed to help raise 100,000 pounds by taxing certain exports. Actually increased smuggling.
Stamp Act
All printed matter had to be printed on stamped, watermarked paper. revenue to help support cost of the colony.
Declaratory Act
stated Parlament didn't have the right to pass taxes. "The hinge on which the door of the American Revolution swings."
Townshend Duties
tax on luxuries, Townshend plans to make enough to pay his own wages. Colonists decide on nonimportation adn noncomsumption to protect.
circular letter
held no taxation without representation, and lose of self gov't of colonial leg. cease to pay govenors. upsets Parlaiment
"Letters from a PA Farmer"
By John Dickson. Argued that Britain had right to regulate trade, but not to make revenue. urged nonviolence.
Boston Massacre
about 8 soldiers and a mob got into arguement. "Shot from around the world"
"period of quiet" 1770-1772
back t o salutary neglect.
-repeal of the Townshend duties
-more hard currency in colonies
-improved trade balance
-good European market for colonial goods.
Committees of Correspondence
Nov. 1772 Samual Adams calls a Boston town meeting and developed committee on communication threats of independence to Britain.
"country ideology"
said power hungry king and parlament would take away independence from colonies.
Tea Act/Boston Tea Party
Britains attempt to save East Indie Tea Company. 150 men emptied the tea from 3 ships to rebel againt tax.
Intolerable Acts/Coercive Acts
Coersive Acts
1. Boston Port Act- closed harbor till tea pd for.
2. Quartering Act- condemed empty buildings and home for troops.
3. Administration of Justice Act- Royal Officials accused of misbehavior would be tried in England to ensure fair trial.
4. Mass. Gov't Act- ammended charter to increase power of royal govenor and deminishes legislature.
*Intolerable Acts*
5. Quebec Act- extended Quebec all the way to Ohio River. Spoke to needs of French settlers and infuriated New England.
"A Summary View of the Rights"
by Thomas Jefferson. "Either rectify injustices or face separation."
First Continental Congress
met Sept. 1774. 54 reps.
Suffolk Resolves
1. Colonies and crown had possessed a compact broken by the Coersive Acts.
2. Urged colonists to arm for self-defense.
3. Provisional gov't to collect taxes until Mass. charter was restored.
4. colonists shouldn't obey any of the Intolerable Acts.
Second Continental Congress
May 1775, all colonies present. there to form de facto gov't.
Olive Branch Petition
written mostly by John Dickerson. expressed loyalty. demanded 1) repeal Intolerable Acts 2)cease fire in Boston 3) negociated w/ colonies to guarantee rights of Americans.
Bunker Hill
1600 colonists. mostly fought on Breeds hill. 2200 brits led by Gen. Howe. took 3 attempts for him to hin.
"Commone Sense"
By Thomas Paine. Talks about rights
Soldiers hired by Britain.
Deborah Sampson Gannett
girl who served as soldier in Amer. rev. at age 16. under name of Robert Shurtleff.
Fabian tactics
Guerilla warfare- an American advantage.
doing something for the greater good.
end of the first phase (1775-1777) of the war.
Valley Forge
where Continental army spent winter quarters in 1777. they were barefoot, exhausted, tire, and ragged
Baron von Steuben
Prussian who trained American troops and turned them into one army. Named "Inspector General"
Molly Pitcher
Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley. carried water back and forth to gunners during Revolutionary War.
Where Revolutionary War ended.
Surrendered to the American ending the war.
Supporters of the Constitution/nonsupporters of the constitution.
Peace of Paris
Treaty that ends American Rev. John Adams, Ben Franklin, John Jay authored. Signed 1783
Articles of Confederation
1st nat'l gov't
Land Ordinance of 1785
est. basic unit of settlement a township of 6 sq. miles
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
est. orderly process of creating a territort and moving it toward statehood. Area North of Ohio River.
Robert Morris
"The Financier" who helped fund the Rev. War.
Newburgh Conspiracy
1783- convinced millitary officers to say they would mutany if their pay was not raised, even though they wouldn't mutany to raise money and taxes.
Shay's Rebellion
Mass. in severe recession. Mass wanted a massive tax hike to pay war debt.
Constitutional Convention
delegates from 12 states met in Philly. Worked behind closed doors. No official journal kept. knew they had to balance needs.
Federalist Papers
series of 85 newspaper essays. set out to explain what authors of constitution were saying. To defend minorities rights against majority tyrany. To defend stuborn minority from blocking measure the majority deemed in the best intrest.

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