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Chapter 1 Biology McGraw Hill (TAMS)


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Cell Organization
All organisms consist of 1 or more cells.
From molecules to cells, all are highly organized from simple to complex.
All organisms sense and respond to changes in the environment.
Growth, development, reproduction
All organisms grow and pass hereditary molecules to offspring.
Energy Utilization
Energy is used for growth and maintenance.
Evolutionary Adaptation
Organisms interact with other organisms and changing environments.
relatively constant internal conditions are maintained
Cellular Level
Organismal Level
-organ system
Populational Level
-biological community
Order of Levels
1. Cellular
2. Organismal
3. Populational
Emergent Properties
novel properties that arise at each higher (cellular) level
Deductive Reasoning
Apply general principals to specific results.
Inductive Reasoning
Use specific observations to construct general principles.
(cats/dogs have hair, all animals have hair)
Scientific Method
1. Observation
2. Hypothesis
3. Prediction
4. Experiment
5. Theory
6. Research
suggested explanation for an observation
test hypothesis and eliminate false hypotheses
in a controlled experiment, all variables but one are ___
you make a prediction before experiment to ___
make sure the test is valid
-a proposed explanation for a natural phenomenon
-the body of interconnected concepts supported by scientific reasoning and experimental evidence
-solid ground of science
used to widen current knowledge and provides the scientific foundation used in applied research
basic research
results (that must be ___) undergo ____ in scientific journals.
reproducible, peer review
___served as naturalist on mapping expedition arond ____
Charles Darwin, coastal South America
___argued operation of natural laws producing change over time, or ___
Charles Darwin, evolution
evolution is explained by ___
natural selection
D's Evidence 1
- fossils of ___ (Glypodant) were similar to ___ (armadillo)
extinct organisms, modern species
D's Evidence 2
- haracteristics of similar species (___) varied from place to place
-gradual change of ___
-organisms on young volcanic islands resmbled those on the ___
galapagos finches, organismal lineages, mainland coast
-___ wrote "Essay on the Principle of Population"
-he pointed out that populations of organisms tend to increase ___
Thomas Mathus, geometrically
Mathus- unchecked populations should lead to ___
population explosions
Mathus- only a limited number of individuals survive
survival of the fittest
Darwin- individuals with superior attributes are more likely to ___ than those without
survive and reproduce
selection- domestic breeds
selection- organisms in the wild
independently and almost simultaneously developed the same idea as Darwin
Alfred Russel Wallace
___ proves that the ___ is older than previously believed
(___, not___ years)
fossil record, earth, 4.5 billion, 6000
homologous & analogous structures
comparitive anatomy
have same evolutionary origin but different structure and function
Ex: Vertebrate limbs
homologous structures
have similar structure and function but different evolutionary origin
Ex: insect wings vs. bird wings
analogous structures
mechanism of heredity
modern genetics
changes in DNA sequences of common molecules (i.e. hemoglobin and cytocrome c)
molecular evidence of genetics
show molecular differences over time
molecular clocks
show number of amino acid differences in animals
phylogenetic trees
four unifying themes of science
cell theory
molecular basis of inheritance
evolutionary change
evolutionary conservation
all living organisms are made of cells, and all living cells come from other living organisms
cell theory
heredity depends on the copying of a cell's DNA to daughter cells
molecular basis of inheritance
life froms have evolved varying characteristics to adapt to varied enironments
evolutionary change
some characteristics of earlier organisms are preserved and passed on to future generations
evolutionary conservation

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