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Large Animal - Pigs


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What is a mature male pig called?
What is a mature female pig called?
What is a newborn pig called?
What is a young male pig called?
What is a young female pig called?
What is a castrated male pig called?
What is normal temp for a pig?
102-103.6 (102.6)
What is a normal pulse for a pig?
60-80 bpm
What ia a normal resp rate for pigs?
8-13 rpm
What is a pig snare?
A long metal pole w/ a wire loop on the end - the loop is put over upper jaw only. The pig will pull against the restrainer resulting in a tug-of-war.
Two methods of pig restraint?
Pig snare and boards/canes
What color pigs produce larger litters and are said to be better moms?
White breeds
What color pigs tend to be meatier and in general grow faster.
Colored, non-white
Re: pigs, "shire" refers to what?
erect ears
Of the pig breeds that we studied, what three are white?
landrace, Yorkshire, and chester white
What pig breed is black w/ a white belt?
What pig breed is red?
What pig breed is white w/ black spots?
Of the pig breeds that we studied, what two breeds are black with 6 white points?
Poland china and Berkshire
When do pigs reach puberty?
6 mos
When is the breeding season for pigs?
year round
What type of estrus cycle do pigs have? What kind of ovulators are they?
continuously polyestrus, spontaneous ovulators
What is the length of the estrus cycle in pigs?
18-21 days
What is the length of heat in pigs?
2-3 days
2 signs of heat in pigs
vulva red & swollen, stands when pressure is applied ot back
What is the most common method of breeding in pigs?
What is the gestation length in pigs
114 days (3 mos, 3 wks, and 3 days)
What is parturition in pigs called?
How many litters do pigs average per year?
1.8 litters
What is the average pig litter size? Why this many?
10-12 piglets - are only 12-13 teats
Out of a litter, how many piglets usually end up being weaned?
Average is 8
5 steps for newborn piglet care
Make sure it is breathing, dip umbilicus in iodine, notch ear for id, dock tail, clip needle teeth
When are piglets weaned?
3-5 weeks
4 components of pig nutrition
carbs, protein, vitamins/minerals, and water
Where do carbs come from in a pig diet? Carbs area source of what?
corn/barley/oats, they are a source of energy
What is a source of protein in a pig diet? Protein is a source of what?
soybean meal, source of amino acids
What is source of vitamins and minerals in a pig diet?
mineral mix
What are the two methods of pig husbandry?
open and closed herds
In pig husbandry, what is an open herd?
new pigs being added to farm continually
In pig husbandry, what is a closed herd?
"all in/all out" no new pigs added
What are the 5 age groups of pigs?
nursing, pre-starters, starters, growers, and finishing
Age, and wt of nursing pigs
birth - 3 wks of age, 2.7-10#
Age, wt, and diet, of pre-starter pigs
3-5 wks, 10-18#, "creep feed" - this is the time of weaning
A sow's milk is only good until piglet reaches what age?
4 weeks
Age, wt, and diet of starter piglets
5-10 wks of age, 18-50#, corn/soybean meal diet
Age, wt, and diet of grower pigs
10-16 wks of age, 50-120#, corn/soybean meal diet
Age, wt, and diet of finishing pigs
16-24 wks of age, 120-240#, corn/soybean meal diet
Why is ventilation extremely important in pig housing?
hign ammonia levels = high respiratory dz
What are the three housing types for pigs?
farrowing barn, nursery, and finishing barn
Describe a farrowing barn
for sow to give birth to piglets, 3x5 farrowing crates, barn temp at 68 degrees for sows, heat lamps for piglets
Describe a pig nursery
Where pre-starters (3-5 wks) are raised, 80-85 degrees, sorted into pens by age and size
Describe a pig finishing barn
Where pigs are raised until slaughter, cool temp, pens w/ slatted floors over pits w/ concrete apron, pigs sorted by age and size
What are three pig production methods?
farrowing unit, farrow to finish, finishing unit
describe a farrowing unit
farrow/wean, then sell weanlings
describe a farrow to finish pig production method
farrow/wean/finish then sell finished pigs to slaughter
Describe a finishing unit method of pig production
buy weanlings, finish for slaughter
Pig dz - cause: virus signs: spontaneous abortions, mummified feti, and stillbirths prev: vax, keep a closed herd
Porcine Parvovirus
Pig dz - cause: virus signs: encephalitis, abortions/stillbirths/mummies pre: test & cull, and only vax if herd already +, cattle, sheep, and dogs can also acquire
Pseudorabies (Aujezky's dz/mad itch)
Pid dz - Cause: many varieties of E. coli Signs: severe yellow diarrhea in 2-14 day old pigs, dehydration Prev: Vax sow before farrowing, oral vax for piglets gives local GI immunity, autogenous vax
What two pig dzs are caused by a virus, cause diarrhea in nursing piglets and are prevented by vaxing the sows?
Rota virus, and Coronavirus
Pig Dz - Cause: Clostridium perfringens Signs: Bloody diarrhea in well-nourished piglets (usually when being weaned) Prev: Vax sows
Clostridium perfringens (type c)
Pig dz - Cause: virus Signs: diarrhea in piglets less than 10 days old Prev: vax sows
Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE)
Pig dz - Cause: treponema hyodysenteriae (spirochete) Signs: bloody diarrhea in pigs 3-4 mos old Prev: vax juv. pigs
Swine Dysentery
Pig Dz - Cause: Bordetella bronchiseptica Signs: destruction of nasal turbinates, predisposition to pneumonia Prev: vax pigs
Atrophic rhinitis
Pig dz - Cause: erysipelothrix Signs: arthritis, diamond-shaped skin rash Prev: Vax
Erysipelas (diamond back dz)
Pig dz - Cause: no water for 48 hours Signs: circling, puritis, blindness, paddling Prev: make sure pigs have water
Salt toxicity (water deprivation)
Pig dz - Cause: virus Signs: invades microphages of the lungs, suppresses immune defenses, respiratory signs, abortion, early farrowing, blue ears Prev: vax for + herds only, all in/all out husbandry
PRRS porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome
When are pigs castrated?
2-3 weeks
Method for castrating pigs
no anesthesia, hang upside down, may hold head between thighs, cut over testicles, scrape vaginal tunic until it breaks
When does an inguinal hernia usually occur? Tx?
Usually occurs at castration Tx: push intestines back through inguinal canal, suture
Cause of umbilical hernia? Tx?
umbilical infection Tx: may surgically correct or ignore
What is a rectal prolapse? Tx?
prolapse of recum due to straining ("hog pile") Tx: can surgically correct or let rot off
Scientific name of pig roundworm
Ascaris suum
Scientific name of pig lung worm
Scientific name of pig nodular worm
Oesophagostomum dentatum
Scientific name of pig stomach worm
Hyostrongylus rubidus
Scientific name of swine kidney worm
Stephanurus dentatus
Scientific name of pig whipworm
Trichuris Suis
Common name, habitat and signs of Ascaris Suum
pig round worm, small intestines, milk spotted liver on post-mortem
Common name, habitat, and signs of Metastrongylus
pig lung worm, lungs, coughing
For which pig parasite is the earthworm the int. host?
Metastrongylus (lung worm)
Common name, habitat, and signs of Oesophagostomum dentatum
Pig nodular worm, lg intestines, nodules on walls of lg. intestines
Common name, habitat, and signs of Hyostrongylus rubidus
pig stomach worm, stomach, anemia
Habitat and signs of Trichinella spiralis
cysts in skeletal muscle, lameness/muscle pain
Common name, habitat, and signs of Stephanurus dentatus
swine kidney worm, kidneys/ureter, kidney damage leading to death
Common name, habitat, and signs of Trichuris Suis
pig whipworm, large intestines, diarrhea
Three sites for blood collection in pigs
Anterior vena cava, jugular vein, auricular vein
Method for anterior vena cava draw
animal on it's back, from right side toward left shoulder
Where is the jugular vein?
In the jugular furrow
Where is the auricular vein?
On ear
What type of needle is used for auricular vein blood draw?
18-20g butterfly catheter
Where is an IM inj given on a pig?
in neck - avoid ham and other expensive cuts of meat
Size of needle for IM inj in a boar
12-14g 1.5"
Size of needle for an IM inj in a sow
16-18g 1.5"
Needle size for an IM inj in a piglet
20-22g .5"
Where is a SQ inj given in a pig?
behind ear or under axilla
How is an IN med administered in a pig? Used for what?
Intranasal, placed in nose on inspiration, used against atrophic rhinitis/E.coli

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