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AHI - Final Exam Review


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Adams-Onis Treaty
Settled a border dispute between the US and Spain over Florida 1819
Trail of Tears
Long, tragic march where Native Americans were forced to travel westward during Jackson's term.
Spoils System
System of employing friends and supporters of the group in power, jackson "kitchen cabinet"
Marbury vs Madison
Established judicial review of the courts, Chief Justice John Marshall
Site of battle where 200 Texans are surrounded and slaughtered by 600 Mexican forces
The body of men constituting the official advisors of the executive (President) head of a nation.
Cotton Gin
Machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers
Judicial Review
Power to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional
Rutherford B. Hayes
19th President, ended reconstruction by removing federal troops, disputed Tilden/Hayes election resulted in the Compromise of 1877
Civil War
American War between the Union and Confederacy from 1861-1865
Democratic-Republican Party
Founded by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison in 1792. Dominant party until the 1820s.
Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner
One of the leaders of the Radical Republicans
Napoleon Bonaparte
French dictator who dreamed of of an empire in America, sold Louisana to Jefferson in 1803
Notherners who moved to the South after the war for economic gain
Lone Star Republic
Name of Texas before annexed to the United States when Texas was its own country.
State's Rights
States believe they should have more power than the federal government
Seneca Falls Convention
Women's rights convention that results in a declaration of sentiments but not much else
Love of a country and willingness to sacrifice for it
James Buchanan
15th President, Dred Scott decision, Confederacy formed
John Brown
An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States, Emanicpation Proclamation, 10% plan, Gettysburg Address, assassinated by John W. Booth
Richmond, VA
Confederate capital
Missouri Compromise
Set up Maine and Missouri as free and slave states (respectively), instituted 36 30 as the line, slavery prohibited above the line
Stephen A. Douglas
Illinois senator. Ran against Abraham Lincoln for office, 1860
Compromise of 1850
Allowed California in as a free state however; it instituted the Fugitive Slave Act.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Co-founded the 1848 Women's Rights Convention held in Seneca Falls, New York
Thomas Jefferson
3rd President, Louisana Purchase, Embargo Act
Santa Anna
General who defated Americans at Alamo, signed a treaty recognizing Texas as an independent country
Election of 1824
John Quincy Adams won after Henry Clay gave his support to Adams, securing his Presidency. When Adams appointed Clay as his secretary of state, Jackson's supporters raged that a corrupt bargain had cheated Jackson of presidency.
Dred Scott Decision
Landmark court decision that ruled that slaves were property and antislavery laws were unconstitutional
Washington, D.C.
Union capital
James K. Polk
11th President, mexican War, Manifest Destiny
Henry Clay
Founder/leader of the Whig Party, a War Hawk, Created many compromises
Erie Canal
an artificial waterway connecting the Hudson river at Albany with Lake Erie at Buffalo
Border States
slave states that remained with the Union
Industrial Revolution
Transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by Lincoln on September 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free January 1863
William T. Sherman
Union general, March to the Sea, Total War
Francis Lowell
Owned textile mill in Massachusetts, "Lowell girls"
54th Massachusetts Infantry
First all-black army unit that saw combat during the Civil War
The right or prvilege of voting.
Hayes-Tiden Election
1876 disputed election, that led to the 1877 compromise ending reconstruction with the withdrawal of federal troops from the south
Eli Whitney
Invented the cotton gin and interchangable parts
Radical Republicans
Political party that favored harsh punishment of Southern states after civil war, led by Stevens and Sumner
Popular Sovereignty
The concept that a States people should vote whether to be a slave state or Free
Battle of Bull Run
1st major battle, proved war was going to be long and costly
Monroe Doctrine
1823; Foreign policy warning, no more European colonization in the western hemisphere
War Hawks
Those who favored war, Clay & Calhoun
American System
Clay's plan for a tariff to help American industries to grow
Terrorist group of White Supremacists in south
Northern United States during the Civil War
Bleeding Kansas
Nickname given to the Kansas Territory because of the bloody violence between anti and pro slavery forces
Sam Houston
First president of the Republic of Texas, Alamo, commander of Texan forces
abolished by the 13th amendment
Southern whites who supported republican policy throughout reconstruction
Sojourner Truth
Former slave who became an abolitionist and womens right activist, "Ain't i a woman"speech
Native American woman who served as a guide an interpreter for the Lewis and Clark expedition
Horace Mann
United States educator, significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)
15th Amendment
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or previous condition of servitude
Fort Sumter
Where first shots were fired in the Civil War
Compromise of 1877
Compromise that enables Hayes to take office in return for the end of Reconstruction ( withdrawal of federal troops)
John C. Calhoun
7th Vice President to Jackson (resigned), advocate of state's rights, limited government, and nullification, War hawk
Confederate States of America
Southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861
Dred Scott
United States slave who sued for liberty after living in a non-slave state, this decison ruled the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, slavery cannot be restricted anywhere
Era of Good Feelings
Monroe's presidency was marked by this era of nonpartisanship
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederacy
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service (War of 1812 cause)
Ulysses S. Grant
Union military leader who became 18th president during reconstruction
William Lloyd Garrison
Wrote the antislavery newspaper, the Liberator
Frederick Douglas
African American abolitionist, wrote The North Star newspaper
Loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
Plessy vs Ferguson
Court case that upheld "separate but equal" is constitutional, 1896
an offical pardon for an "illegal act", part of the 10% plan
Harriet Beecher Stowe
Author of the antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
Samuel Slater
a textile worker who illegally left England and brought manufacturing secrets to America
Dorothea Dix
American activist for the menatally ill, and prison reform served in Civil War as a nurse.
founded by Smith, taken over by Young moved to Salt Lake City Utah
Rio Grande
Border between the U.S. and Mexico
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
Confederate general during the Civil War killed by friendly fire
Monitor (North) vs Merrimac (South)
Civil War battle between two ironclad war ships
Embargo Act of 1807
Prohibited all American trade with foreign nations during Jefferson's term
Freedmen's Bureau
Set up to help former slaves with food, healthcare, jobs etc...
John Marshall
Chief Justice during Jackson's presidency, Marbury v. Madison
Secession (secede)
Formal separation from an alliance or federation,to break away from the Union
Brigham Young
United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith
Siege of Vicksburg
Surrounding of the city of Vicksburg, Mississippi, by Union forces
War of 1812
War that resulted from Britain putting economic limitations on the United States, Treaty of Ghent
13th Amendment
Abolished slavery; Ratified in 1865
Ft. Sumter
first shot of the civil war fired here
Andrew Johnson
17th President upon Lincoln's death, first impeached president
Temperance movement
effort to ban the sale of alcohol in the U.S.
Period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
Battle of New Orleans
Jackson defends city against British frontal attack, becomes national hero (War of 1812)
Lewis and Clark
Two explorers sent by Jefferson to explore the Louisiana Purchase
10% Plan
Lincoln's plan - only 10% of the population had to swear loyality to the union. must abolish slavery
Gadsden Purchase
Purchase of land from Mexico in 1853 that established the present U.S.-mexico boundary
Famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement (1768-1813)
Robert Fulton
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat(Clermont) and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
California Gold Rush
Triggered by discovery at Sutter's Mill, leads to mass migration to California
Native American leader who tried to unite tribes, his village was destroyed by Wm. Henry Harrison
Pickett's Charge
failed attempt by Confederate General at Gettysburg to break the Union line
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that the US forced Mexico to sign in 1848, giving Mexico's northern lands to the US)
Harpers Ferry
Location of federal arsenal that John Brown raided to get guns to arm slaves, 1859
Sherman's March to the Sea
Sherman's "total war" march in Georgia, Atlanta to Savannah
Appomattox Courthouse
Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
Social system that provides separate facilities for minority groups
Francis Scott Key
wrote Star Spangled Banner while being held at Ft McHenry in the War of 1812
Republic of Texas- Lone Star
Independent nation that was created after Texans defeated Mexico in the Texas Revolution
Nat Turner
United States slave and insurrectionist who in 1831 led a rebellion of slaves in Virginia
Robert E. Lee
General of the Confederates, surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House
John Tyler
Elected Vice President and became the 10th President of the United States when Harrison died (1790-1862)
Zachary Taylor
Mexican War general,12th President
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of war, Union victory, ends with Pickett's (Confederate) charge
Democratic Party
Older of two major political parties in the United States (Jackson's party)
Oregon Trail
connected Missouri and Oregon, 2000 mile journey
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which 25,000 men were killed or wounded, "bloodiest battle"
Fugitive Slave Act
Law that provided for harsh treatment for escaped slaves and for those who helped them, part of Compromise of 1850
Andrew Jackson
7th President, Trail of Tears, let the charter for the US bank run out
John Quincy Adams
6th President, corrupt bargain
Mexican Cession
Lands gained from Mexico as a result of the Mexican War
Clara Barton
Woman who organized the American Red Cross
Whig Party
Political party formed in 1834 to oppose policies of Andrew Jackson
James Monroe
5th President, Era of Good Feelings
Susan B. Anthony
Woman who played pivotal role in women's rights to secure suffrage, first women on US currency
Battle of Tippecanoe
Tecumseh and the Prophet attack, but General Harrison crushes them in this battle (War of 1812)
Joseph Smith
Founder and leader of the Mormons
Movement to outlaw slavery
Louisiana Purchase
Gave the U.S. a large portion of the Midwest, Miss. River to Rocky Mts.,led to debates about slavery, purchase from France 1803
Santa Anna
Mexican dictator who was captured at San Jacinto & recognized the independance of the Lone Star Republic
Loose Construction
Belief that the government can do anything that the constitution does not prohibit
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Act passed in 1854, repealed the Missouri Compromise, led to "Bleeding Kansas"
Martin Van Buren
8th President of the United States (1837-1841) after Jackson
William Henry Harrison
9th President, Hero of Tippecanoe (War of 1812)
Touissant Louverture
forced Napoleon Bonaparte to abandon his plans of an empire in America
Mexican War
1846-1848 conflict between US and Mexico, caused by the annexation of Texas, resulted in the Mexican Cession
Republican Party
Political party formed to oppose extending slavery in the territories, Lincoln first Pres.
Nullification Crisis
Dispute over states' rights vs federal power during Jackson's term, a compromise was reached to lower the tariff on imorted goods
James Madison
4th President, War of 1812
Manifest Destiny
The belief that the U.S. should extend all the way to the pacific ocean
Strict Construction
Congress has ONLY powers given it by the Constitution
Samuel Morse
American Inventor of the telegraph and the morse code
Harriet Tubman
Former slave who helped slaves escape on the Underground Railroad, women's rights
Cyrus McCormick
inventor of the mechanical reaper

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