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US History 5


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Alex de Tocqueville
"equality of condition" in america that existed nowhere else in the world but the US.

Democracy in America, what country was like during age of jackson
"Age of the Common Man"
Jacksonian Democracy
white males had access to the poles
Expansion of the Electorate
eliminated the property qualifications for voting
Free blacks were excluded from the polls
American System
Henry Clay, provided a high tariff on imports to finance an extensive internal improvement package
Corrupt Bargain
Jackson won the popular vote but there was a four way split in the the electoral votes, Henry clay was out of the election so threw his vote to Adams who then made clay secretary of state
Tariff of Abominations
bill originally supported by southern congressmen in order to embarrass the administration. finished however, included higher import duties for many goods which were bought by the Southern Planters
Andrew Jackson
prototype of the self-made westerner
used veto more than anyother president in history
Kitchen Cabinet
Jackson ignored the regular cabinet and used a group of partisan supporters
Spoil System
Jackson threatened the dismissal of large numbers of government emplyees to replace them with his supporters
Indian Removal Act in 1830
removal of all indian tribes to the west of the Mississippi river and this provided federal enforcement
Worcester vs. Georgia
Cherokee Nation occupied northern georiga and claimed to be a sovereign political entity within boundaries of that state
Court supported the claim but Jackson refused to enforce it
Trail of Tears
forced march under US Army escort of thousands of cherokees to the west
Federal Land Policy
Westerners wanted cheap lands available to the masses and northeasterners opposed this policy because it would lur away their labor supply and drive up wages
The Webster-Hayne Debate
Hayne of South Carolina speech in support of cheap land
Webster replies to the argument moved the debate from the issue of land policy to the nature of the union and states' rights
The Second Nullification Crisis
Jackson supported higher rates of the new tarrif
Calhoun was mad and came up with the Ordinance of Nullification- duly approved by a special convention and the sustoms officials were ordered to stop collection of the taxes

Jackson used federal troops to enforce the collection of the taxes
Nicholas Biddle
operated the Bank of the United States
had a conservative economic policy enforced conservatism among the state and many bankers resented it
Election of 1832
Jackson antagonised the bank and wanted to destroy it. Clay and Webster promoted a bill to recharter the bank, feared Jackson would gain support and kill the bank. Congress rechartered it but jackson vetoed it. Lame duck agency

Removed the federal governments deposits from vaults and distributed the funds to state and local banks "pet banks". Biddle responded by tightening up credit and calling in loans
Panic of 1837
Jackson issued a specie circular- required payment for public land in hard money- no more paper or credit
Martin Van Buren
hand picked by jackson known as Old Kinderhook and spent most of term dealing with chaos left by jackson

eventually persuaded to establish independent treasury to handly government funds
Whig party
emerged from the ruins of the national republicans
William Henry Harrison
Old Tippecanoe
Died a month after inauguration
King Andrew
What critics called andrew Jackson
Roger Taney
Jackson's new cheif justice
Demotratic philosophies
opposed big government, modernized, urbanized, and industrilizaton support came from working classes, merchants, small farmers
Whigs philosophies
promoted government participation banking and cautious to expansion
supporters from business and manufacturing
belief in the innate goodness of man, thus in his improvability. emphasized emothions and feelings over rationality. reaction against enlightenment which had put a strong emphasis on reason exclusion of feelings
Northern Writers
James Fenimore Cooper- Leatherstocking Tains, independence of individuals, importance of a stable social order

Walt Whitman- Leaves of Grass, celebrated importance of individualism

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow- epic poem- Evangeline and Hiawatha, spoke of vaule of tradition and impact of the past on present
Southern Writers
Edgar allen Poe- The Raven

William Gilmore Simms- defender of slave system, south carolina poet
Hudson River School
group of landscape painters painted pictures of america
popular but condemed by chruches "vagabond profession"
originated in MA
transcend the bounds of intellect and to strive for emotional understanding to attain unity with God without the help of the institutional church which they saw as a recationary and stifling to self expression

Charles Finney "social gospel" salvation to all
Major writers
Ralph Waldo Emerson, NATURE
Henry David Thoreau WALDEN

repression of society and preached civil disobedience to protest unjust laws
cooperative community was attempt to improve the life of the common man in the face of increasing imersonal industrialism
directed by Mother Ann Lee, communities were socialistic experiments which practiced celibacy, sexual equality and social dicipline
Joseph Smith "sacred" writings in NY and organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, he was killed and Brigham Young
American society for Promotion of Temperance organized in 1826, strong support by protestants
Public schools
Americanize the new immigrant children and protistantize the catholics
Horace Mann
first secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education
Asylums for the Mentally Ill
Dorthia Dix, advocating more humane treatment for mentally incompetent
Senecal Falls Convention, "declaration of sentiments and resolutions"

Elizabeth Cady Stantion and Harriet Beecher Stowe

Secondary importance
The First abolitoinist movements
advocating only the purchase and colonization of slaves, American COlonization Society established the colony of Liberia
William Lloyd Garrison
paper called the Liberator and advocated total and immediate emancipation. Founded the New England Anti Slavery Society
Frederick Douglass
escaped from his MD owner and published his own newspaper, the North Star
Abolitionist movement split
Into two wings: Garrison's radical followers and moderates who favored "moral suasion and petitions to congress, they formed the liberty party the first national anti-slavery party
Natural Increase
birth rates began to drop after 1800 rapidly in the cities childred becoming liabilities rather than assets

Father out of home working and child bearing and raising placed on mother abortion becoming popular
"clut of domesticity"
reflected a shift in family responsibilitites
increased between 1815-1837
British, German, and Irish
Much discrimination
newcomers huddles in ethnic neighborhoods in the cities
Problems of urbanization
bad water poor sanitation poor health, epedemics, typhoid feaver, tuphus, cholera

Inadequate police and fire
Social unrest in the Cities
violence in the cities democartes fought whigs so bad the militia had to be called in

New York mod sacked a catholic convent
women were treated as minors before the law. Woman's property became her husbands wiht marriage

employment- school teaching
by 1850, 200,000 blacks lived in the North.
Jim Crow Laws
laws separated the races, spearate churches, fraternal orders. African Methodist Episcopal Church forved and the Black Masonic and the Odd Fellows lodges
Inventions and Technology
American passed European industry
Coal replaced water source of industrial power

Charles Godyear- Vulcanizing rubber

Elias Howe's sewing maching

Samuel Morse- electronic telegraph
Rise of Unions
Came with the growing corporate form of Business ownership
Revolution in Agriculture
urban workers became dependent on food grown by others so farming increased
McCormick's mechanical reaper
enabled a crew of six men to harvest in one day as much wheat as 15 men could using older methods
John Deere
Steel plow
Durable tool to break the heavy parire sod
Jerome Case's
threashing machine increased the bushels of grain that could be separated from the stalk in a day
Yeoman Farmers
largest group of Southern whites, independent small farmers who worked teir land wiht their family sometimes one or two slaves

Major crop was corn
Poor southern whites
Crackers, sandhillers
southern underclass
Large plantations
grew cotton, sugar, or tobacco

Used the Gang system... white overseers directed black drivers wo supervises large groups of backs in the fields
Slaves refusing to work hard or they found ways to sabotage the machinery or the crops
Slave uprisings
Gabriel Prosser, Denmark Vesey, Nat Turner
Manifest Destiny
belief that the american nation was desined to eventually expand all the way to the Pacific
Adams-Onis Treaty 1819
northern boundary of the spanish possessions near the present northern border of California
American missionaries
followed traders and trappers, sent back reports on their work to the Penny press
and eventually led to oregon fever
Webster-Ashburton Treat
important in that it helped create an atmosphere or compromise and forbearance in the US and British Relations
James K Polk
Young Hickory
Staunch Jacksonian
Oregon Treaty 1846
The current US canada boundary east of the rickies was extended westward to the Pacific thus securing use of the straite of juan for the US
Mormon migration
Under church leader Brigham Young settled near Great salt lake utah

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