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Eng 1st test


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motives of explorers and settlers for coming to America
religious reasons (protestant reformation); commercial reasons (trade, resources); colonize for mother country; material betterment (new start)
types of literature written

(Don't Let Jack Drink Pink Scotch Partying)
descriptive narratives
journals (more factual; public)
diaries (more personal)
poetry (mainly Puritans)
Polished Histories
Theology of Puritans (Religious beliefs): tenets
- about God
(the oscar mayer hotdog)
One absolute creator
Moral gov't
Holy scripture
Theology of Puritans (religous beliefs):tenets
-about man
(Never Paint Diagonal Stripes)
Natural depravity (original sin)
Damnation of the unregenerate
(not saved by God)
Salvation of the few (elect)
Puritan dilemma
needed to know how to live in world and attain to needs of both body and soul and meet responsibilities as member of family and community while not losing sight that spiritual life is #1 so can still spend eternity w/ God
Giovanni Verazzano
-Italian; explored SC to ME
-Nargansett Bay; founded Newfoundland
-wrote lengthy letter to king describing what he has seen
-letter tells of friendly natives, ideal land,
Cabeza de Vaca
-born in Spain
-spent 8 years in MX as one of the natives as a captive
-writes a descriptive narrative
-1st record of extended contact w/ natives
-whole time faithful to God
John Smith
-most famous of British explorers
-established Jamestown
-charismatice, ambitious, smart
-mercenary soldier
-most famous work: General History of VA, New England, and Isles
-wrote also: True Relation of VA and Description of New England
-wants industrious men to come settle
-his books gave early expression to american beliefs
-helped others w/o thinking of himself
William Bradford
-born into poor family, self-educated
-Puritan (persecuted in England, came over to America on Mayflower)
-wrote: Of Plimoth Plantation
-fundamentalist Puritan (believed in the tenets)
-Merry Mount
-colonial gov. of Plymouth for 33 yrs
-everything done to please God
-denounced Morton
Nathaniel Hawthorne
-born in Salem, MA
-turns Merry Mount story into a love story b/w Edith and Edgar
-allegory that compares to Adam and Eve
-Gov. Endicott cuts down maypole
-said they would die for each other; puritans believe in baptism & matrimony; married
John Winthrop
-orthodox beliefs
-most impt person to Puritans in New World; had more power authority than magistrate
-gov for many years
-came over on Arbella
Roger Williams
-founded community of Providence, RI
-1st community w/ separation of church and state
-allowed all faiths
-most liberal writer of time period
Anne Hutchinson
-didn't believe women should speak out; she was trialed while pregnant; interrogated; exiled from community; had miscarriage (said to be punishment for her heresy)
-broke away from Puritanism
Michael Wigglesworth
-wrote poem Day of Doom (poetical description of the Last Judgement) (widely read among Puritans)
-std hymn stanza/ rhythm
-rt hand:good; L: hypocrites

-warning of evil to come b/c they haven't done what God wanted them to do
- born in England; Harvard
-also wrote: meat out of the eater and God's controversy w/ England
Anne Bradstreet
-John Winthrop said husband should not let her read so much; not what women should do
-poetry was way of dealing w/ her life
-both father and husband involved in gov't
-8 children
-wasn't sure about stuff being published
-10th muse
-early poems: rhymed discourses and poems; groups of 4 (quaternions)
-wrote "contemplations" (nature/ personal obs)
-"Flesh and the Spirit" (sisters body and soul)
Influences on Bradstreet's poetry
-her everyday life/ religion
-classical lit
-metaphysical poets
-war b/w sexes
Themes: vanity of worldy pleasures; necessity for resignation to God's will; brevity of life; love of family
(grandchildren died; house burned down, etc)
Edward Taylor
(review in notebook)
-wrote 3 hr sermons
-wrote poems from meditating over sermons (sacramental acts of private devotion & worship)
-married twice/ 13 children/ born in England
-believed in 8 tenets
-wrote in tradition of metaphysical poets (elaborate metaphors)
-wrote "Huswifery"; "Upon a Spider Catching a Fly"; "Upon Wedlock and Death of Children"
metaphysical conceit
metaphor that startles you from its improbability
Mary Rowlandson
-wrote The Sovereignty and Goodness of God
-married Joseph; lived in Lancaster
-3 children
-taken captive by Indians (during King Philip's war)
-kept captive for almost 3 months
-uses God as a reference
-narrative helped to est. American hero who could survive w/ horrible conditions
-wrote it for good of people
-like a massacre (every gathered in house during raid- only one escaped)
Mary Rowlandson
-Puritans feared if had good life on earth then wouldn't for eternity; looked for affliction-having had to prove herself to God
-glad she was afflicted; cured from vanity
Samuel Sewall
-NE Puritan
-diary; day-today insight of impt Puritan figure
-example of American aristocrat
-wrote: Diary; Selling of Joseph; Revolution of NE Justified
-member of council; justice of superior court
-judge in witch trials which made him believe that's why many impt members of his family died (wife, child, mom)(publically apologized)
-tries to remarry; rejected a lot; really wants madam winthrop but she says no
Cotton Mather
-cautiously agreed w/ witch trials; Puritans believed in witchcraft
-most prestigious Puritan minister
-mainly wrote sermons
-wrote: Wonders of Invisible World (talks about witch trials/trial of Bridget Bishop)
-also wrote " Magnolia Christi Americana" (proved his love to people; helped provide for poor; life of John Winthrop)
Sarah Kemble Knight
-born in Boston; married and became self-sufficient widow
-NOT a Puritan
-conducted a school in Boston, managed a shop & boardinghouse
-she also engaged in Indian trading and farming
-her Journal: told of her journey, many were not supportive b/c didn't have proper male companion
-showed racial prejudice (didn't see how slaves could be treated so well)
-journal tells of her detailed journey
Ebenezer Cook
-"poet laureate of MD"
-born in London; moved to MD
-lawyer and poet
-wrote "The Sot-Weed Factor: or a voyage to MD"
-about journey over and what he encountered when he arrived; didn't like much of what he saw
-felt he was cheated by some people he dealt w/...went to trial..said they were bias and went back to England
-this work is impt b/c doesn't have practical lesson
William Byrd
-Anglican religion
-very impt man
-highly satirical/ likes literature for entertainment
-well-educated/ witty/ smart
-believes its best to combine indians and americans through intermarriage
-most famous document: secret diary (written in complex code)
-wrote: "history of the dividing line": disputed boundary b/w va and nc
-also wrote: "A progress to the Mines"
John Woolman
-idea of conscientious objection
-tries to find compromise b/w church and state
-asked to board soldiers; does but not for money like he's offered
-everybody loved him
-wrote: Journal (about his accounts of sin and coming to Christ)
conscientious objection
young men could claim this to prove that they could not participate in war b/c of religious belief (many still worked off battlefield/ in hospitals, etc)
Jonathan Edwards
-defender of New England Calvinism
-studied Locke at Yale
-wrote: "Freedom of the Will"; "Sarah Pierrepont" (about wife who was perfect/ never described physical appearance); "Divine and Supernatural Light" (sermon that contrasts sinner...); "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" (in Great Awakening to warn people of their sinful nature)
St. Jean de Crevecour
-French aristocrat
-talks of idea of American dream
-opportunity and freedom (incentive to come to America)
-18th cent. man
-greatest contr: epistolary essay
-wrote: Letters from an American Farmer(discussion of American life and ideals)
-he married/ settled/ believed way of life before revolution good
-wasn't trusted by British or Americans
-follower of Hobbs
-writes mostly to Europeans to convince them to come to America (land of oppor. etc)
-flaws of Amer: slavery
epistolary essay
essays in letter form; written to anyone who wanted to read them
Crevecour: what america provided
resources and land
freedom to work and gain from work
benevolent gov't to mitigate conflict

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