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michael history


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northwest passage
A nonexistent path through North America that early explorers searched for, hoping that it would allow ships to sail from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean.
to change beliefs
money or property that is used to eearn money
narrow winding sea passage
a tool used by navigators in the 1400s and 1500s to determine a ship's position by charting the stars
El Comino Real
"the kings road" built by spanish settlers to link communities
treaty or tordesillas
1492-treaty signed by spain and portugal in which both countries agreed to move the line of demarcation 800 miles farther W of the azors
council of the indies
group of royal officials established in 1524 that oversaw the government and enforced laws in Spanish America.
official document that gives a person the right to establish a colony
settlements established by priest in spanish america to get local indians to practice christianity
encomienda system
system in Spanish America that gave settlers the right to tax local Indians or to demand their labor in exchange for protecting them and teaching them skills.
large farms that specialize in growing one kind of crop
spanish explorers who led militery expaditions in the americas and captured land for spain
sea dogs
a group of English sailors whom Elizabeth encouraged to raid Spanish treasure ships.
columbian exchange
transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the americas and europe, asia, and africa
the centuries-long struggle to drive the Moors from Spain; ended in 1492 w/ the surrender of Granoda
spanish armada
large Spanish fleet defeated by England in 1588.
rebirth of interest in the arts and learning that spread across europe in the mid 1300s and lasted to the 1600s
line of demarcation
boundary established by pope alexander VI in 1493 about 300 miles W and E of the azors gave unclaimed land west of that line to spain and east of the line to portugal
small portuguese ship that was very manuverable and fast
black death
an epidemic that spread through europe fron 1348 to about 1350 that killed as many as 75 million people
joint stock companies
businesses formed by a group of people who jointly make an investment and share in the profits nad losses
spanish military bases located in the americas
a royal govenor in spanish america
commercial revolution
period of economic develpment that took place in europe in the 1400s and greatly expanded trade
protestant reformation
religous movement begun by martin luter and others in 1517 to reform the catholic church
spanish towns in the americas
reformers who protested some practices of the catholic church
economic condition in which the amount of money in circulation and price of goods increased
sole economic controlof a bussiness or product
region of Spanish America where few Europeans lived; included northern Mexico, Florida, and parts of present-day Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas.
to sail completely around something

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