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microbio exam 1


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when oldest MO evolved
3-5-3.8 billion years ago
6 main types of MO
virus, helminths, fungus, algae, bacterium, protozoan
florence nightingale
known for skills and pushed for reform in healthcare
antonio van leewenhook
self-made microbiologist; father of protozoology and bacteriology; discovered MO; microscope
francesco redi
decaying meat experiment, disproved spontaneous generation
louis pasteur
swan-neck flasks experiment; disproved spontaneous generation
john tyndall
provided final blow to spontaneous generation with dust; discovered endospores
oliver wendall holmes
published paper on puerperal sepsis; said it was safer to deliver baby at home then in a hospital
all for handwashing
joseph lister
first to introduce aseptic techniques, understood sterilization
germ theory of disease
disease caused by growth of microbes in body and not by sins, bad character, god, etc.
robert koch
demonstrated first direct role of bacterium in disease; 4 postulates; anthrax; invented simple stain in 1877
koch's 4 postulates
1. causative agent must be present ine very case of the disease and absent in healthy animals; 2. agent of disease can be isolated from the disease animals and grown in pure culture; 3. disease can be reproduced by inoculating a portion of the healthy culture into healthy animals; 4. agent of disease can be re-isolated from the infected animal
types of covalent bonds
polar - electrons shared unequally; unpolar - electrons shared equally
what are fxns of proteins
catalyze, structure and shape, cell movement, transporting nutrients, turning genes on and off, certain properties of various membranes in cell
protein level - primary
type, number, and order of AA in peptide chain
protein level - secondary
protein structure by AA bonding; either beta sheets or alpha helices
protein level - tertiary
3D shape of protein
protein level - quarternary
structure resulting from several polypeptide chains
what are carbs fxns
obtain energy and make cellular material; metabolism; part of nucleic acids RNA and DNA; reserve food source in bacteria; nutrient and energy sources; part of bacterial wall (structural support and protection)
what are 5 I's
inoculation, incubation, isolation, inspection, identification
streak plate
simplest most common used technique to isolate pure colonies; quad streak and T-streak
spread plate
technique where mixture of cells spread out on agar surface
light rays are bent at point of interface
refractive index
how greatly substance slows velocity of light
bright-field microscope
forms dark image against brighter background; for live and preserved stained specimens
virtual image vs. real image
virtual image - at ocular lens, bigger than real image; real image - smaller, at objective lens
what factors determine quality of optical image
magnification, resolution, contrast
ability to separate points; to observe fine detail
dark-field microscopy
for living unstained cells and organisms; reduced internal detail
phase-contrast microscope
for living organisms; contrasted against grey background; good for internal cellular detail
interference microscope
brightly colored and highly contrasted 3D images of live specimens
electron microscopy
100,000X greater magnification than light microscope; 1000X greater resolution than light microscope; used only for preserved material; more details can be seen
transmission electron microscope
projects beams of electrons through specimen
scanning electron microscope
projects beam of electrons onto the specimen

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