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Psych Prep Key Terms- Developmental


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cross-sectional v. longitudinal v. cross sequential
cross sequential:
nature v. nurture
nature: genes

nurture: maturation, environment
continuity v. stage theories of development, quantity v. quality
continuity: development is continuous with new abilities, skills, and knowledge developing gradually and relatively uniformly over time, leads to quantitative change

stage theories: development is discontinuous and that periods of little change alternate with periods of abrupt and rapid change, leads to qualitative change
genotype v. phenotype
genotype: genetic makeup of a person containing both expressed and unexpressed characteristics

phenotype: observable characteristics of a person
Down's syndrome v. PKU
Down's syndrome: chromosomal abnormality characterized by MR, broad skull, slanted eyes, physical deformities, and reduced activity

PKU: inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defective gene that affects the metabolism of phenylalanine, can result in severe MR
X-linked disorders
disorders in which the defective gene lies on the X sex chromosome, men are more at risk b/w women have a second, potentially healthy, X chromosome, e.g., hemophelia which causes excessive bleeding
reflexes: Moro, Babinski, rooting, grasp, sucking
Moro: baby extends the legs, arms, and fingers, and arches the back in response to being startled

Babinski: baby spreads out its toes and twists its foot when the sole of its foot is stroked

rooting: baby turns its head, opens its mouth and begins to suck in response to its cheek being stroked

grasp: baby makes a firm fist around an object placed in its hand
Vygotsky and scaffolding
Vygotsky: cognitive development results from social interaction

scaffolding: instructional strategy involving teachers adjusting their level of help based on the child's performance
primary v. secondary aging
primary aging: the inevitable changes in physical and mental processes, genetically-controlled

secondary aging: disease, disuse, and neglect of the body
holophrasic v. telegraphic speech
holophrasic speech (12-18 months): baby uses a single word or even a syllable to express a complete thought, smallest unit is a phoneme (da) and smallest meaninful unit is a morpheme (daddy)

telegraphic speech (18-24 months): toddler puts together two words to express one idea
Chomsky, Whorf
Chomsky (nativist view): children are born with an innate language aquisition device so require only minimal exposure to adult language to develop speech

Sapir-Whorf: speakers of different languages actually think differently b/c of the structures of their languages, support for this hx is mixed
code switching
effects of Head Start
assimilation v. accomodation
assimilation: the process of taking in a new experience and incorporating it into existing cognitive structures

accomodation: adjusting to reality demands to reorganize or modify the existing cognitive structure or schema
uneveness within a given child's cognitive development
Piaget's cognitive stages
sensorimotor (birth-2): learn through sensory observation, gain control of motor functions, explore and manipulate environment, accomplish object permanence and symbolic representation

preoperational (2-7): increased use of symbols and language, characterized by intuitive thinking, egocentrism, phenomenalistic causality, animism, irreversability and centration

concrete operational (7-11): can operate and act on real or imagined concrete objects, characterized by operational (logical) thought and conservation

formal operational (11-18): ability to apply operations to abstract concepts, metacognition
the ability to think about one's thinking and to explore personal values and compare them with others, typically develops during adolescence
IQ concordance rates
identical twins (.75)
siblings reared together (.5)
siblings reared apart (.25)
one parent and a child (.40-.45)
crystallized v. fluid intelligence and aging
crystallized: practiced and overlearned skills that are predominantly verbal, appears to remain intact with aging

fluid: capacities for problem solving in novel situations, appears to gradually decline after adolescence
Mahler: separation-individuation
separation: the process of becoming a discrete physical entity by physically distancing

individuation: the process of becoming psychologically independent, involves maturation of independent ego functions
separation anxiety v. stranger anxiety
as a result of object permanence, the ability to understand that objects continue to exist independent of the child's involvement with them, the child develops stranger anxiety during Mahler's differentiation stage (5-10 months) and separation anxiety (paradoxically) during Mahler's practicing stage (10-16 months)
Bowlby: protest, despair, detachment
concepts of attachement theory describing a syndrome of maternal deprivation among institutionalized children under 2 y/o

protest: when separated initially, child cries and searches for mother

despair: as separation continues, child feels hopeless that mother will never return

detachment: child emotionally separates self from the mother
certain stimuli are capable of eliciting innate bx patters during a critical period of the animal's development (Lorenz and the ducks)
strange situation
a technique of Ainsworth's attachment theory looking at how infants organize their bx around an attachment figure when they are mildly stressed

secure: warm and responsive, moderate distress upon separation and enthusiasm upon return- caregiving is sensitive and responsive

avoidant: treat mother like a stranger, rarely cry upon separation and ignore on return- caregiving is aloof and distant

ambivalent: clingy and upset upon separation, resistant upon return- caregiving is inconsistent and insensitive

disorganized: no clear strategy, unresponsive or avoidant, exhibit fear and confusion toward mother- caregiving is abusive or parent has unresolved abuse issues
authoritarian v. permissive v. authoritative parenting
authoritarian: expect unquestioned obediance, demanding, controlling, threatening, punishing

permissive: value self-expression and self-regulation, few limits, little monitoring, detached and uninvolved

authoritative: caring and emotionally available yet firm, fair and reasonable
gender role v. gender identity v. gender constancy
stages of gender rold development

1. gender role: societal expectations for appropriate male or female bx, begin at birth

2. gender identity: individual's perception of self as male or female, begins at 18 months, achieved at 3 years

3. gender constancy: attainment of the recognition that gender does not change w/ dress or bx, attained by 5 or 6
activity v. disengagement theory of retirement
activity: old age is fulfilling when the person remains active and involved as long as possible

disengagement: successful aging involves a natural and graceful withdrawal from life roles that a person can no longer carry out due to the physical limitations of aging (largely discredited)
people go through 5 states when facing their own death: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance
health belief model
health bx results from the joint influence of psychosocial facotrs, perceived susceptibility to disease and perceived seriousness of the disease, as well as the perceived benefits of action v. perceived barriers to preventative action
easy v. difficult v. slow-to-warm-up
type of temperament (Thomas and Chess)

easy (40%): regular, adaptable, mildly intense style that is positive and responsive

difficult (10%): moody, easily frustrated, tense, and overreact to most situations

slow-to-warm-up (15%): mild in responding, somewhat shy and withdrawn, need time to adjust to new experiences or people
preconventional v. conventional v. postconventional
Kohlberg's theory of moral reasoning

preconventional (4-10): compliance w/ rules to avoid punishment and get rewards, 1. punishment-obedience (avoiding punishment) and 2. instrumental hedonism (get rewards)

conventional (10+): conforming to rules to get approval of others, 1. good boy/good girl (gain approval), 2. law and order (one's duty)

postconventional (may begin as early as 13): recognition that there are sometimes conflicts b/w moral or socially accepted standards, 1. morality of contract (welfare of society), 2. morality of individual principles (internalized standards)
non-sexist theory of moral reasoning, males prefer justice and females think more about responsiblities to specific people
Piaget and moral development
heteronomous (5-10): rigid thinking, cannot imagine more than one way of looking at a moral issue, rules decided by authority and cannot be changed

autonomous (10+): flexibility, can consider more than one aspect of a situation and intent
teratogens & fetal alcohol syndrome
teratogens: agents which cause birth defects, the embryo is most vulnerable

fetal alcohol syndrome: characterized by delayed growth, physical deformities, delayed motor development, decreased intelligence, LD, attention problems, hyperactity, irritability
sex and aging
most common DSM diagnosis in the elderly
abortion effects

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