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NCLEX ATI Medsurg 2


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What is Bronchitis?
An Inflammation of the Lungs that can be acute or chronic.
Is Bronchitis transmitable?
Yes, it is usually a Virus.
What are Rhonchi?
A coarse rattling sound somewhat like snoring, usually caused by secretion in a bronchial tube.
What is CAP?C
Community Aquired Pneumonia.
What are the differences between Community and Hospital Aquired Pneumonia?
Classified as CAP when Sx start outside hospital or during first 48 hours of hospital stay.
Risk factors for Pneumonia.
Chronic Disease
Prolonged Immobility
What is Egophony?
An abnormal change in tone, somewhat like the bleat of a goat, heard in auscultation of the chest when the subject speaks normally.
What is Whispered Pectoriloquy?
The distinct transmission of vocal sounds during auscultation of the chest with a stethoscope.
What is Fremitus?
Vibratory tremors, esp. those felt through the chest wall by palpation.
What is Sed Rate?
A nonspecific laboratory test of the speed at which erythrocytes settle out of unclotted blood.
Men under 50 years old: less than 15 mm/hr.
Men over 50 years old: less than 20 mm/hr.
Women under 50 years old: less than 20 mm/hr.
Women over 50 years old: less than 30 mm/hr.
What are the characteristics of Asthma?
Wheezing, SOB, Chest Tightness, Cough.
Asthma. More trouble breathing In or Out?
Out. Clogged airways cause air to be trapped in the lower portion of the lungs and pt must use Upper Respiratory to gasp for air.
What is Albuterol.
A Beta II agonist.
What is Emphysema.
Chronic Damage of the Alveoli causing them to over inflate.
What are the three diseases of COPD?
Asthma, Chronic Bronchitus, and Emphysema.
What are the signs that will be seen with an emphysema client?
Coughon with thick sputum
SOB on exertion
IncrePased Ant/Post Chest
Pursed Lip Breathing
Ruddy Skin
Clubbed Fingers
What would pulmonary function tests show with an Emphysema Client?
Prolonged Forced Exp
Decreased Vital Capacity
Decreased Residial Volume
What tests would be ordered with Dx of Emphysema?
Pulmonary Function Tests
What is Orthopnea?
Labored breathing that occurs when lying flat and is relieved by sitting up.
What are dietary recommendations for a COPD client?
Low Carb, High Fat/Protein
What are the pharmacotherapies for COPD?
Corticosteroids (PO and Inhaled)
Beta Andergenic Agonists
What is ARDS?
it is a life-threatening condition that occurs when there is severe fluid buildup in both lungs. The fluid buildup prevents the lungs from working properly—that is, allowing the transfer of oxygen from air into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body into the air.
What is Pneumothoarx?
Collapsed Lung. Air Escapes from the lung or air enters the lung from the outside.
What is the difference between closed or open pneumothorax.
Open with penetrating injury. Closed, blunt trauma.
What is thoracentesis?
Inserting a needle through the chest wall and into the pleural space, usually to remove fluid for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
How do you dress a open pneumothorax.
Oclussive dressing taped on three sides to allow air to escape.
What is PEEP, and why should it be used cautiously with Emphysema clients?
positive end-expiratory pressure on a ventelator. They Blebs in Emphysema might rupture.
What are three causes of High Pressure Alarm on Ventilator?
Secretions in airway or tube
Client Biting Tube
Client with breathing out of synch with machine (bucking the ventilaor).
Nursing Interventions for High Pressure Alarm.
Suction airway or tube or sedate client.
What are two reasons for and interventions for low pressure alarm?
Decreased Cuff or Leak in system. Reinflate cuffs or check for leaks.
What is Hypercapnia?
Inadequate removal of Co2 from the bloodstream.
What is Flail Chest?
A condition of the chest wall due to two or more fractures on each affected rib resulting in a segment of rib not attached on either end; the flail segment moves paradoxically in with inspiration and out during expiration.
What is an S3?
S3 Ventricular gallop heard after S2, an abnormal heart sound.
What is S4?
Atrial gallop, heard before S1, an abnormal heart sound.

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