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PSY104 Final


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Lexical strategy

Analysis of language

Words with most snynonyms are most important

Came up with the Big Five Factors

Big Five Factors






Extraversion characteristics
Warmth, assertiveness, excitement seeking, positive emotion
Agreeableness characteristics
Trust, straightforwardness, modesty, compliance
Conscientiousness characteristics
Competence, order, self-discipline
Neuroticism characteristics
Anxiety, angry hostility, depression, impulsiveness
Openness characteristic
Fantasy, feelings, actions, ideas, values
Vocab: stress
An experience of an event that is perceived as endangering one's well-being
Reactions to stress



Coping strategies 

Inner adrenal

Triggers sympathetic nervous system

Releases adrenaline

Outer adrenal-pituitary

Secretes cortisol

Damages heart muscles, immune system, etc.

Types of Stressors

Major life events

Daily hassles

Chronic circumstances 

Quality of life equation
[positive affect / negative affect] + life satisfaction
6 dimensions of appraisal

Physical well-being, self-esteem, work goals, financial status, respect from another person, well-being of a loved one

3 outcomes of appraisal

Stressor is irrelevant

Stressor is a threat

Stressor is a challenge

Direct coping
Planning, therapy, confrontation, support
Indirect coping
Exercise, meditation, defense mechanisms, chemical stress reducers
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
5 axises of the DSM

Axis I: Clinical syndromes

Axis II: Personality disorders

Axis III: General medical conditions

Axis IV:  Psychosocial and environmental problems

Avis X: Global assessment of functioning 

Vocab: Epidemiology
Study of distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population
Generalized anxiety
chronic level of anxiety not tied to specific threat
Phobic disorder
irrational fear of an object or situation not threatening
Panic disorder
recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety
Obsessive Compulsive disorder
pesistent urges to engage in senseless rituals
Posttraumatic stress disorder
psychological disturbance attributed to a major traumatic event
Somatoform disorder
physical ailments that cannot be completely explained by organic conditions
Somatization disorder
diverse array of physical complaints
Conversion disorder
significant loss of physical functions
excessive preoccupation with health concerns
Dissociative amnesia
sudden loss of memory that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting
Dissociative fugue
Loss of memory of one's entire life and everything relating to identity
Dissociative identity disorder
co-existence in one person of two or more largely complete and very different personalities
Major depressive disorder
persistent feelings of sadness and despair
Bi-polar disorder
experience of one or more manic episodes with periods of depression
Paranoid schizophrenic disorder
delusions of persecution, grandeur
Catatonic schizophrenic disorder
motor disturbances, from rigidity to excitement
Disorganized schizophrenic disorder
deterioration of adaptive behavior, complete social withdrawl
Undifferentiated schizophrenic disorder
unclassified schizophrenia, exhibiting symptoms from more than one classification
Anorexia nervosa
intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body image
Bulimia nervosa
habitual gorging followed by purging
Three main therapy approaches

Insight, talk therapies



Insight theories: Freud

Goal: Identify unconscious forces that motivate behavior

Technique: Free associations, dream analysis, transference

Vocab: Transference
feelings projected onto the therapist
Insight theories: Neo-Freudian

Carl Jung: collective memory

Alfred Adler: inferiority complex, birth-order analysis

Karen Horney: "tyranny of the shoulds"

Object-relations: objects defined as mental representations of people or things that influence our i

Insight theories: George Kelly

Goal: Help the person more accurately see the world

Techniques: Roleplaying

Insight theories: Carl Rogers

Goal: Achieve congruence between the Social self and the True self

Techniques: Non-directive, reflective listening

Behavior therapy goal
Achieve control over antecedents, behaviors, and consequences
Vocab: antecedents
things that predict maladaptive behavior
Token economies

Behavior technique

Secondary reinforcement


Behavior technique

Behavior influenced via viewing another person's punishment/reward 

Skills training programs

Behavior technique

Learn independent living skills 

Systematic desensitization

Behavior technique

Extinction of classically trained responses by progressive exposure to the stimuli 


Behavior technique

Extinction of classically trained responses by immediate exposure to stimuli 

Aversion therapy

Behavior technique

Decreasing undesirable behavior by pairing behavior with negative outcome, based on patient compliance

Cognitive behavioral goal
Challenge faulty associations between behavior and consequences
Ellis' rational emotive therapy

Cognitive behavioral goal

Encouragement to overwhelm self-defeating thoughts

Beck's cognitive therapy

Cognitive behavioral goal

Negative automatic thoughts are to be treated as hypotheses and tested

Biological treatment for anxiety
Decrease Amygdala activity
Biological treatment for depression
Increase dopamine, norepinphrine, serotonin
Biological treatment for schizophrenia
Block dopamine receptors
Biological treatment for ADHD
Increase dopamine levels
Why we like people



Reciprocity: we like those who like us

Inferences of personality (kindness)

Physical appearance

Vocab: propinquity
Men attracted to


Physical symmetry (low mutation load)

Fertility cues (waist-hip ratio = .7)

Women attracted to

Older mates

High status (dominance, resources)

Strong brow, jaw

Genetic quality in short-term mates

Rusbult Investment Model of Commitment

Rewards - Costs = Outcome

Outcome - Expected Outcome = Satisfaction

Satisfaction - Alternatives + Previous Investments = Committment

Cascade of Dissatisfaction

Complaints to critcism

Feel defensive

Feel contempt

Stonewall (physiological changes)

Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love

Passion: arousal

Commitment: decisions/choices

Intimacy: bonding, closeness

Gender style: masculinity
stereotype of agency, strength, power
Gender style: femininity
stereotype of communion, softness, love
Sex typed
Masculine men, feminine women
Cross typed
Feminine men, masculine women
low on masculinity and femininity
high on both masculinity and femininity
Two Factor Theory of Sexual Aggression

Juvenile delinquent - sexual promiscuity - sexual aggression

Violent home/culture - hates women - sexual aggression 

Bowlby's theory of attachment
Adaptive mechanism for monitoring the physical proximity and emotional availability of protective attachment figures
Models of self
Positive: self is valuable and worthy of love
Models of others
Positive: others are comforting and worthy of trust
4 styles of attachment

Deck Info