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Culinary Test 2.3


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⬢Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, & Oxygen ⬢ Composed of sugars (the building blocks of carbs) ⬢4 calories/gram ⬢Primary Source of calories ⬢With exception of milk & honey, they are found exclusively in plant products (produced through photosynthesis) ⬢Technically, you can survive without consuming them because your body only needs glucose which it can produce ⬢Easily broken down and can be stored as glycogen in the muscles and tissues
Animal Protein vs. Legume/Vegetable protein
Animal proteins are complete Proteins from legumes and vegetables are incomplete
a protein can change its shape by altering its structure through denaturation
Proteins Denature...
... •in the presence of salt •under heat (140-180˚F) •in the presence of acidity •Exposure to ultraviolet radiation •under extreme agitation (e.g. whipping)
The Science of studying nutrients in food and evaluating the effect these have on the body in terms of both health and disease
Maillard Reaction
Browning process that involves amino acids in the presence of carbohydrates •often falsely attributed to caramelization •starts at around 230-240˚F •Gives flavor to dark chocolate, coffee, & roasted meat •Creates crust flavor on bread
Basal Metabolic Rate
The number of calories the body needs to perform its most basic functions
Essential Nutrients
Cannot be manufactured in the body and must be take in through diet (most vitamins-except D- are essential nutrients)
A Healthy Diet
Balanced in Macronutrients: proteins lipids carbohydrates Micronutrients: Vitamins Minerals
⬢4 calories/ gram ⬢Not the preferred form of energy ⬢Composed of Amino Acids ⬢20 in the body, 9 are essential ⬢Everything you see in the mirror is made of protein (hair, eyes, skin)
Saccharides ⬢The building blocks of carbohydrates ⬢Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, glactose ⬢Disaccharides: Sucrose, Lactose, Maltose ⬢Glucose is the only sugar your body can use, all others are turned into glucose in the body
Sucrose (glucose + Fructose) Lactose (galactose + glucose) Maltose (gl+ gl: long strands of Glucose)
Glucose Fructose Galactose
Disaccharide: glucose + fructose
Disaccharide: galactose + glucose
Disaccharide: glucose + Glucose (long strands of glucose)
Relative sweetness
Sucrose = 1 Glucose = .4 Fructose = 1.7
Type-1 Diabetes
Inability to produce insulin (which controls blood sugar levels)
Type-2 Diabetes
Diet creates a resistance to insulin ⬢originally adult-onset disease, now more common among kids)
Glycemic Index
index of how quickly your blood sugar goes up after consuming something. The lower the number, the more slowly the item causes your blood sugar t go up (slower = better) LOW: High fiber fruits & vegetables, bran, legumes MED: Whole grains, brown rice, oatmeal, no sugar added juice HIGH: White flour, white rice, idaho potatoes (worst of all-all glucose)
Food Groups
Meat & Beans Vegetables Fruit Cereal Grains Milk
80% of Vegetables consumed in America=
Idaho potatoes
Vitamins & minerals Needed in small quantities
⬢Proteins ⬢Carbohydrates ⬢Lipids Needed in the body in large quantities
⬢A lipid ⬢A sterol ⬢Necessary to have in body (transports things & rebuilds) ⬢Produces testosterone & estrogen
Cholesterol Negatives
Plaque (primarily cholesterol) builds up in blood vessels, and the pressure can cause them to burst LDL is bad cholesterol
Two types of Cholesterol
Dietary: cholesterol that is consumed, can be burned off Serum: The cholesterol that is floating around in your blood stream . The real concern. Determined by diet and genetics
High density lipoprotein (Good Cholesterol) ⬢A thick (dense) coating of protein surrounding lipids ⬢enables fat to move through blood without cholesterol getting out and causing plaque ⬢Actually helps sweep away plaque ⬢Consuming Alcohol, Fiber, and monosaturated fats makes HDL go up
Low density lipoprotein (Bad Cholesterol) ⬢Thin coating of protein around lipid ⬢risk of cholesterol (lipid) leaking out and causing plaque ⬢Saturated and transfats make LDL go up and also make HDL go down
⬢Composed of Fatty Acids ⬢9 calories/ gram ⬢preferred form of energy when requirements are high (e.g. pregnancy, infancy, recovery, extreme activity) ⬢Fats Lipid that is solid at room temperature ⬢Oil Lipid that is liquid at room temperature ⬢Oils are generally healthier than fats ⬢Lipids transport vitamins (therefore, a low-fat diet can lead to a deficiency in vitamins D, E, A, & K ⬢Lipids can reach higher temperatures than water, and so enable maillard reaction ⬢Taste is a result of fat which gets flavor to tongue
Macronutrient Spoilage
Lipids go rancid Carbohydrates ferment Proteins are a source of food for bacteria
Saturated Fats
⬢A fat with no free carbon bonds ⬢Solid ⬢Last longer ⬢Generally animal derived ⬢Connected with higher risk of cardiovascular disease e.g. Butter
Monounsaturated Fats
Fat with one free carbon bond ⬢Less shelf-stable than Saturated Fats ⬢Generally liquid e.g. Olive Oil, Canola, Chicken, Fat
Polyunsaturated Fats
⬢Fats with more than one available carbon bond ⬢Less shelf-stable than saturated or monounsaturated fats. ⬢More liquid e.g. corn oil, soy, fish oil, nut oil
Partial Hydrogenation
Heating polyunsaturated fats under pressure and piping in hydrogen. Used to create solid more shelf-stable fats out of cheaper liquid unstable oils Hydrogen molecules end up opposite each other. The result is trans fatty acids, which our body cannot process. Carcinogenic
three fatty acids
two fatty acids Leaves room on one side for water
One fatty acid Leaves room on all sides for water. Keeps packaged food moist

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