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Community test 4 - 2 (STDs)


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Bacterial STDs
gonorrhea (some are resistant strains) syphilis chlamydia
Can STDs caused by viruses be cured?
No (chronic disease)
Viral STDs
herpes simplex HPV HAV HBV
Chlamydia S/S (Male)
nongonococcal urethritis (NGU); painful urination and urethral discharge; epididymitis
Chlamydia S/S (Female)
None ir mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC); vaginal discharge; if untreated, progress to symptoms of PID: diffuse abdominal pain, fever, chills
Chlamydia TX
doxycycline azithromycin
Chlamydia (Pt teaching)
refer partners of past 60 days; counsel client to use and avoid sex until therapy is complete and sx are gone in both client and partners; medication teaching
Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) S/S (male)
urethritis, purulent discharge, painful urination, urinary frequency; epididymitis
Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) S/S (female)
None, or symptoms of PID
Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) Tx
ceftriaxone ciprofloxacin ofloxacin cefixime levofloxacin If chlamydial infection not ruled out, give azithromycin
Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) Pt Teaching
Refer pertners of past 60 days; return for evaluation if sx persist; counsel client to use therapy until complete and symptoms are gone in both client and pertners; medication teaching
Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae) DX
culture of discharge; gram stain of urethral discharge, endocervical or rectal smear
Chlamydia DX
Tissue culture; Gram stain of endocervical or urethral discharge: presence of PMNs without gram-negative intracellular diplococci suggests NGU
Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) S/S (Primary) (10-90 days)
usually single, painless cancre; if untreated, heals in a few weeks
Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) S/S (Secondary) (6 wks to 6 mo)
low-grade fever malaise sore throat headache adenopathy rash
Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) S/S (Early Latency) (within 1 year of infection)
asymptomatic infectious lesions may occur
Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) S/S (Late Latency) (after 1 year of infection)
Asymptomatic; noninfectious except to fetus of pregnant women
Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) S/S (Late Active) 2-40 years
Gummas of skin, bone, mucous membranes, heart, liver CNS involvement: Paresis, optic atrophy Cardiovascular involvement: Aortic aneurysm, aortic valve insufficiency
Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) DX (primary)
visualization of pathogen on darkfield microscope examination; single painless ulcer (cancre), FTA-ABS or MHA-TP, VDRL (reactive 14 days after apperarance of chancre)
Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) DX (late latency)
Lumbar puncture, CSF cell count, protein level determination, and VDRL
Syphilis (Treponema pallidum) TX
Herpes S/S
vesicles, painful ulceration of penis, vagina, labia, perineum, or anus; lesions last 5-6 weeks, and recurrence is common; may be asymptomatic
Herpes Tx
No cure; tx episodes with acyclovir
HBV (Acute)
self limiting; individuals develop antibodies & successfully eliminate the virus from the body; Symptoms: (mild)mild, flu-like sx to (severe) jaundice, extreme lethargy, nausea, fever and joint pain (hospitalization)
HBV (2 types)
- acute - chronic
HBV (Chronic)
- body is unable to rid itself of the virus and remain lifelong carriers of the Hep B surface antigen (HBsAg) - (as carriers) able to transmit the HBV to others; may develop hepatic carcinoma or chronic active hepatitis
HBV (Chronic) S/S
anorexia fatigue abd discomfort hepatomegaly jaundice

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