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Speech exam 01


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copy deck
partial inability to swallow, can happen at any age
What is a D.O. always concerned about?
the mind, body,and spirit of the patient
what are the three different types of speech?
standard, collequel, and illiterate
moving things together
- smallest unit of communication that exists - requires 2 people - personal -closer in conversation - more relaxed - spontaneous - immediate feedback - must have interaction
exogenous mental retardation
people don't exercise brain b/c of environment
What is the main job of a speaker?
Speaker must be in control of the communication message 1) encode message 2) make sure message will be decoded in the right manner
signal to noise ratio - when ratio is compromise, communication will be depleted
anything that will interfere with the communication process
- should not be egocentric - allows you to control the milieu - a tool to move human kind to new/exciting human goals - 75% of all communication is oral -filtering - communication should always be enthusiastic, honest, and motivating
Stage fright
- nervousness - insecurity - can't be eliminated - audience - poor communication -knowledgable -society - increase in confidence= decreases in stage fright - if you reduce nervousness, you still have tension - large audience= uncertainty
What to think about when giving a presentation?
- scholarly refrences - size of audience - intellectual capacity of audience - be prepared with outline- 3 by 5 card - language should have clarity - rehearse - get feedback from rehearsal
what are the three types of informative speech?
1) dyad 2) small group 3) public speaking
small group
-want them to make a decision about something - have structure - leadership
public speaking
- speaker & audience - little knowledge of audience - persuasion is your job -formal - must be prepared & exact
Social functions
helps build relationships
decision making
1. problem awareness 2. problem analysis 3. problem solution 4. select a solution
listening is just as important as talking
Mass Communication
- consists of messages that are transmitted to large, widespread audiences by electronic and print media - aimed at a large audience - no personal relationship between sender and receiver - messages are developed by large organizations - more for advertising b/c sponsors and such control these messages
Physical needs
communication is important physical health
Identity needs
through communication we learn who we are - our sense of identity comes from how we interact with other people
Social needs
communication helps us satisfy social needs 1. pleasure- it's fun 2. affection- to help others 3. inclusion- makes one less lonely 4. escape- put off something that needs to be done 5. relaxation 6. control- get something you don't have, want someone to do something for you
Linear model
- a sender encodes ideas and feelings into some sort of message and then conveys them to a receiver who decodes them - communication channel: there are several- writing channel, face to face channel, etc. - introduces the concept of noise
the method by which a message is conveyed between people - the type of channel used can make a difference on the effect of the message
mediated communication
technological communication
what are the three types of noise?
1. external 2. physiological 3. psychological
External noise
- a.k.a. physical noise - includes those factors outside the receiver that make it difficult to hear - distractions that cause difficulty - can disrupt communication anywhere in the model- sender, channel, message, or receiver
Physiological noise
- involves biological factors in the receiver or sender that interfere with accurate reception: illness, fatigue,etc
Psychological noise
- refers to forces within a communicator that interfere with the ability to express or understand a message accurately
interpersonal communication
- occurs when people treat one another as unique individuals, regardless off number of people or situation - meidated communication enhances interpersonal communication
content messages
focus on the subject being discussd
public distance
12 feet of space and onward
why we form relationships
1. appearance 2. similarity 3. complementary 3. reciprocal attraction- those who seem to like us 4. competence 5. disclosure- revealing info about oneself 6. proximity 7. rewards
meta communication
messages that refer to other messages
affect blends
2 or more expressions with different emotions
nonverbal, vocal message
-an important part of self-concept - our evaluations of self-worth - those with high self-esteem are more willing to communicate
set of relatively stable perceptions that each of us holds about ourself - what we think is unique about us and what makes us both similar/different from others - how we view ourselves
what influences nonverbal communication?
1. culture 2. gender
reflected appraisal
- develop an image of ourselves from the way we think others view us
what affects communication behavior?
1. self-concept 2. personality
the presenting self
verbal and nonverbal ways we act to maintain our own presenting image and the image of others 1. managing your own identity 2. communicating in ways that reinforce the identities that others are trying to present
self-fulfilling prophecy
- occurs when a person's expectation of an outcome, and subsequent behavior, makes the outcome more likely to occur than would have otherwise been true 1. your own excpectations influence your behavior 2. when one person's expectations
presenting self
public image- way you want to appear to others
perceived self
- reflection of the self-concept - way you believe yourself to be in moments of honest self-examination
fields of experience to help understand each others behaviors
Communication competence
achieving ones goals in a manner that maintains or enhances the relationship in which it occurs 1. there is no "ideal" way to communicate 2. it is relational 3. it is situational 4. it can be learned
when you understand others and take into account their perspective, then communication is better -important to communication competence
Cognitive complexity
-abiltiy to construct a variety of frameworks for viewing an issue -part of communication competence b/c it allows us to make sense of people using a variety of perspectives
Self- Monitoring
- the process of paying close attention to one's behavior and using these observations to shape the way one behaves - too much self- monitoring is not good - low self monitoring means you are a poor communicator - self-monitors are able to separate a part of their consciousness and observe their behavior from a detached viewpoint
Competence in mediated communication
- may easily be understood -can't always interpret correct b/c facial expressions and voice are not available -choose the best medium
way people and animals use space
intimate distance
begins with skin contact and ranges out to 18 inches
personal distance
ranges from eighteen inches to four feet
social distance
ranges from 4 to 12 feet

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