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ana exam 1


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Separates the Thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
tissues and organs of thoracic cavity that form a septum between lungs and heart
Pleural cavity
contains lungs
Pericardial cavity
contains heart
Serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity and reflected over the viscera (Organs)
Parietal Peritoneum
lines a cavity or body wall
Visceral Peritoneum
covers the organs
Visceral Layer
Covers an organ
Parietal Layer
lines a cavity or body wall
down the center, left and right
through the body, top and bottom
divides body into front and back. Posterior and Anterior
Abdominal Subdivisions
Right and left hypochondriac, epigastric region, right and left flank, umbilical region, right and left inguinal, hypogastric region
Right Lower Quadrant (Abdomin)
Right Upper Quadrant (Abdomin)
Liver, hanging off the liver is galbladder
Left Upper Quadrant
Stomach, Spleen
Left Lower Quadrant
sigmoid colon
Superior, Cephalic, Cranial
above or close to the head
inferior, caudal
below or closer to feet
anterior, ventral
towards front
posterior, dorsal
towards back
towards midline
away from midline
closer to point of attachment or close to trunk
farther from point of attachment or further from trunk
superficial, external
toward the surface of the body
deep, internal
toward center or core of body
lying on the back with the face up
Flexion, Extension
Increasing or decreasing the angle between two limb segments
supination, pronation
the palm is up to hold a mug of soup in supination
rotation of the limb around a proximal joint
inversion, eversion
movement of the sole of the foot toward or away from the body midline
abduction, adduction
movement of the limb away from or towards the body midline
is ctyoplasm (surrounds cell) + Nucleoplasm
3 major divisions of a typical cell
1. Cytoplasm 2. Cell membrane 3. Nucleus
contents of the cell that surround the nucleus
Structural components of cytoplasm
A. Organelles: perform energy requiring activities of the cell B. Inclusions: storage components
Cell Membrane
Envelope forming outermost portion of the cell
Components of Cell membrane
Lipids and proteins
(Protein) Ion Pumps, Channels
ALlow non permeable substances entry into the cell
(Protein) Receptors
Bind to incoming molecules such as hormones triggering a response with in the cell or bind to incoming molecules which are then engulfed in a portion of the cell membrane and taken into the cell
(Protein) Enzymes
Control the rates of metabolic actions
Structural protein
cellular adhesion molecules, allow for junction between cells
attach to outer surface as glycocalyx
important in cell recognition
lipid head and tail
heads are hydrophilic (likes moisture tails are hydrophobic (don't like moisture)
Large spherical structure that contains the genetic material of the cell that direct cell activities
material enclosed by the nuclear envelope
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (rER)
ribosomes attach (stud) the surface giving it a rough appearance. 1. Makes proteins 2. Studded with Ribosomes 3. continuous on nuclear envelope and also smooth endoplasmic
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (sER)
Continuous with rER 1. Lipid Synthesis 2. detoxification of drugs and alcohol 3. glycogen metabolism: has enzyme that breaks down glycogen into glucose
1. Attach to rER 2. Free in cytoplasm -Produced in nucleus -found in nuclear envelope -makes proteins
Golgi Apparatus
continuous with ER, flattened sacs, modification and packaging of proteins, directs traffic throughout cell. Receives proteins from rER and produces lysosomes
Parts of Golgi Apparatus
1. Forming face (cis) 2. Maturing face (trans) 3. Transport Vesicles
Powerhouse for the cell, generates energy for the cell. Primary Functions: Energy and Store Calcium Maternal in origin, has own DNA, RNA, generates ATP
cellular clean up crew, garbage disposal, contains degradative enzymes
Cell eating - solid or particulate matter
cell drinking - taking in liquids
Primary lysosome
unchanged from origin at golgi apparatus
1. heterophagosome - contains particulate matter brought into cell via endocytosis 2. autophagosome - contains worn out cell parts or metabolic products
secondary lysosome
digestive vacuole formed by primary lysosome
residual body
contains material unable to be digested after formation of secondary lysosome
group of cells performing specialized structural and functional roles
2 components of tissue
cells - varying types, shapes, and numbers all have interrelations with: Intercellular substances - non-living substance forming the matrix in which cells live
Where can epithelium be found
Covers surfaces - organs lines body cavities and hollow organs forms glands
characteristics of epithelium
-replicate often allwoing rapid healing -avascular - lack of blood vessels -tightly packed with little intercellular material - form protective barriers
Functions of epithelium
1. barrier - skin 2/3. secretion/absorbption - digestive tract 4. excretion - kidney 5. sensory reception - skin
classification of epithelium
-simple - 1 layer -stratified - multiple layers -pseudostratified - 1 layers which appears to be multiple
classification of epithelium based on cell shape
1. squamos - scale-like, width and depth greater than height 2. cuboidal - width, depth, and height approximately the same 3. columnar - height exceeds width and depth
types of simple epithelium
1. simple squamos - single layer of flat scale-like cells easily damaged, found in alveoli, capillaries 2. Simple cuboidal - single layer of cube shaped cells, secretion and absobption found in kidney tubules, salivary glands, pancreas, liver 3. simple columnar - single layer of elongated cells function in secretion and absorption found in digestive tract contains mucous secreting goblet cells 4. pseudostratified ciliated columnar - found lining upper portions of respiratory tract and oviducts contains numerous goblet cells
types of stratified epithelium
1. Stratified squamous - found in areas of heavy wear and tear, epidermis, mouth, anus, esophagus 2. transitional - found lining urinary system especially in bladder
types of glandular secretion
1. merocrine - granules released from cell (pancreas) 2. apocrine - part of cell is released with granules (mammary gland) 3. holocrine - whole cell dies and is secreted (sebaceous gland of hair follicle) 4. cytogenous - whole living cell is released (testies/ovaries)
2 types of glands
1, exocrine - secrete products into ducts 2. Endocrine - secrete directly into tissue fluid or bloodstream
finger-like evaginations -function to increase surface area for absorption/secretion
-hair-like, motile processes -longer than microvilli -function to move things
Connective tissue proper
-Highly vascular -variable cullularity -variable amount of intercellular material -surface surrounded by tissue and lacks basement membrane
Fibroblast (connective tissue)
most common cell type in connective tissue mainly responsible for collagen production
mast cell (connective tissue)
largest cell type, secretes: heparing - prevents blood clotting -histamine - associated with inflammatory response/allergies
originate as white blood cells, they are phagocytes meaning they attack and ingest foreign particles
fiber types in connective tissue
1. collagen - most abundant, high levels in bone and dentin, thick threads that are flexible but not elastic 2. elastic - less strength than collagen, easily stretched found in elastic ligaments and arteries 3. reticular - mode of collagen, very thin, mesh like pattern of arrangement, flexible, found in liver, lymphatic tissue
loose connective tissue
increased cells, decreased fibers, fills space between muscles and binds skin to underlying muscles
adipose tissue
(fat) beneath the skinm in spaces between muscles, functions in protecting and cushioning
(fibrous) decreased cells, increased fibers, densely packed collagenous fibers with few fibroblasts resulting in very strong cords, tendons, ligaments..poor blood supply therefore slow healing
skeletal muscle
voluntary, striated, myosin (thick filaments) and actin (thin filaments), rich blood supply
smooth muscle
involuntary, nonstriated, found lining walls of GI tract, blood vessels, urinary bladder
cardiac muscle
involuntary, striated, found ONLY in heart,
2 layers of skin
epidermis, dermis
Characteristics of epidermis
-lacks blood vessels -keratinized -thickest on palms and sole of foot -melanocytes provide melanin (absorbs UV radiation) -rests on basement membrane -stratified squamos
cells of epidermis (what are they and where found)
-stem cells - found in deep layer of epidermis -keratinocyte - majority of visible epidermal cells -melanocytes - deepest layer of epidermis, stratum basale -tactile (merkel) cells - sense receptors -Dendritic (langerhans) cells - macrophage cells

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