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Med Term Ch 9


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disease characterized by enlarged features, espcially of the face and hands, caused by hypersecretion of the pituitary growth hormone after puberty , when normal bone growth has stoppedl most often casued by a pituitary tumor
adren/o, adrenal/o
adrenal gland
adrenal glands suprarenal glands
located on the superior surface of each kidney; the adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones and the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
adrenal virilism
excessive output of the adrenal secretion of androgen (male sex hormone) in adult women caused by a tumor or hyperplasia; evidenced by amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), acne, hirsutism, and deepening of the voice
excision of the adrenal glands
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
stimulates secretion from adrenal cortex
influence development and maintenance of male sex characteristics, for example, facial hair, deep voice
anterior pituitary, adenohypophysis
anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
antidiabetic drug
any of several agents used to control blood sugar levels in treatment of diabetes mellitus
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
influences the absorption of water by kidney tubules
antithyroid drug
an agent that blocks the production of thyroid hormones; used to treat hyperthyroidism
blood sugar (BS), blood glucose
measurement of the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood
regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla that affect the sympathetic nervous system in stress response
computed tomography (CT)
CT of the head is used to obtain a transverse view of the pituitary gland
continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), insulin pump therapy
use of an insulin delivery device that is worn on the body (usually the abdomen) and subcutaneously infuses doses of insulin programmed according to the individual needs of the diabetic patient
condition of congenital hypothyroidism in children that results in a lack of mental development and dwarfed physical stature; the thyroid gland is either congenitally absent or imperfectly developed
to secrete
Cushing syndrome
a collection of signs and symptoms caused by an excessive level of cortisol hormone; may be due to excessive production by the adrenal gland, or more commonly occurs as a side effect of treatment with glucocorticoid hormones, such as prednisone , symptoms
diabetes mellitus (DM)
metabolic disorder caused by the absense or insuficient production of insulin secreted by the pancreas, resulting in hyperglycemia and glucosuria
electrolyte panel
measurement of the level of specific ions (sodium, potassium, and chloride) along with carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood; electrolytes are essential for maintaining water balance (hydration) as well as nerve, muscle, and heart activity
epinephrine, adrenaline
secreted in response to fear or physical injury
responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics
exophthalmos / exophthalmus
protrusion of one or both eyeballs, often because of thyroid dysfunction or a tumor behind the eyeball
fasting blood glucose (FBS)
measurement of blood sugar level after fasting for 12 hours
follicle-stimuating hormone (FSH)
initiates the growth of ovarian follicle; stimulates the secretion of estrogen in females and the production of sperm in males
gluc/o, glucos/o, glyc/o
glucose (sugar)
a hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans that serves to regulate carbohydrate metabolism by raising blood sugar
regulate carbohydrate metabolism and have antiinflammatory effects; cortisol is the most significant glucocorticoid
glucose tolerance test (GTT)
measurement of the body's ability to metabolize carbohydrates by administering a prescribed amount of glucose after a fasting period, then measuring blood and urine for glucose levels every hr thereafter for 4-6 hrs
glucosuria, glycosuria
glucose (sugar) in the urine
glycohemoglobin , glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc)
a molecule (fraction) in hemoglobin, the level of which rises in the blood as a result of an increased level of blood sugar; a common blood test used in diagnosing and treating diabetes
enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation
Graves disease
the most common form of hyperthyroidism; caused by an autoimmmune defect that creates antibodies that stimulate the overproduction of thyroid hormones
growth hormone (GH)
influences growth
shaggy; an excessive growth of hair, especially in unusual places (eg. a woman with a beard)
hormone (an urging on)
hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
treatment with a hormone to correct a hormonal deficiency (eg. estrogen, testosterone, and thyroid)
an abnormally high level of calcium in the blood
high blood sugar
a condition resulting from an excessive amount of insulin in the blood that draws sugar out of the bloodstream, resulting in hypoglycemia fainting, and convulsions; often caused by an overdose of insulin or by a tumor of the pancreas
an abnormally high level of potassium in the blood
hypersecretion of the parathyroid glands, usually caused by a tumor
abnormally increased secretion
a condition of hypersecretion of the thyroid gland characterized by nervoisness, weight loss, rapid pulse, protrusion of the eyeball (exophthalmos), goiter
an abnormally low level of calcium in the blood
low blood sugar
hypoglycemic, antihyperglycemic
a drug that lowers the blood glucose level (eg. insulin)
deficient level of potassium in the blood
hyposecretion of the parathyroid glands
excision of the pituitary gland
abnormally decreased secretion
a condition of hyposecretion of the thyroid gland causing low thyroid levels in the blood that result in sluggishness, slow pulse, and often obesity
a hormone secreted by the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans that is responsible for regulating the metabolism of glucose (insulin = island)
islets of Langerhans of the pancreas
endocrine tissue within the pancreas (the organ located behind the stomach, in front of the 1st and 2nd lumbar vertebrae); secretes insulin and glucagon
ket/o, keton/o
ketone bodies
ketosis / ketoacidosis / diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
presence of an abnormal amount of ketone bodies (acetone, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid) in the blood and urine indicating and abnormal use of carbohydrates, such as in uncontrolled diabetes and starvation
luteinizing hormone (LH)
causes ovulation; stimulates the secretion of progesterone by the corpus luteuml causes the secretion of testosterone in the testes
magnetic resonance imaginig (MRI)
nonionizing images of magnetic resonance are useful in identifying abnormalities of the pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, and thyroid glands
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
affects skin pigmentation
exact function unknown; affects the onset of puberty
all chemical processes in the body that result in growth, generation of energy, elimination of waste, and other body functions
mineral corticosteroids
maintain salt and water balance
advanced hypothyroidism in adults characterized by sluggishness, slow pulse, puffiness in the hands and face, and dry skin
secreted in response to hypotension and physical stress
located on both sides of the uterus in the female pelvis; secrete estrogen and progesterone
influences uterine contraction
excision of the pancreas
inflammation of the pancreas
parathyroid glands
two paired glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck; secrete parathyroid hormone
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism
excision of the parathyroid glands
pineal gland
located in the center of the brain; secretes melatonin and serotonin
pituiary dwarfism
a condition of congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone that slows growth and causes short, yet proportionate stature (not affecting intelligence); often treated during childhood with growth hormonel; other forms of dwardism are most often caused by gen
pituitary gigantism
a condition of hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood bone development that leads to an abnormal overgrowth of bone, especially of the long bones; most often caused by a pituitary tumor
pituitary gland / hypophysis
located at the base of the brain; considered the master gland as it secretes hormones that regulate the function of other glands, such as the thyroid gland, adrenal glands, ovaries, and testicles; the anterior pituitary secretes thyroid-stimulating hormon
excessive thirst
excessive urination
posterior pituitary, neurohypophysis
posterios lobe of the pituitary gland
postprandial blood sugar (PPBS)
measurement of blood sugar level after a meal (commonly 2 hrs later)
regulates uterine conditions during pregnancy
prolactin, lactogenic hormone
stimulates breast development and milk production during pregnancy
radioiodine therapy
use of radioactive iodine to treat disease, such as to eradicate thyroid tumor cells; treatment is administered in a nuclear medicine facility
a neurotransmitter that serves as the precursor to melatonin
sonographic images are used to identify endocrine pathology, such as with thyroid ultrasound
steroid hormones
hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex
located on both sides within the scrotum in the male; secrete testosterone
affects masculinization and reproduction
thymus gland
excision of the thymus gland
regulates immune response
thymus gland
located in the mediastinal cavity anterior to and above the heartl secretes thymosin
thyr/o, thyroid/o
thyroid gland (shield)
thyroid function study
measurement of thyroid hormone levels in blood plasma to determine the efficienct of glandular secretions, including T3, T4, and TSH
thyroid gland
located in front of the neck; secretes triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin
thyroid uptake and image
radionuclide (nuclear medicine) scan of the thyroid to visualize the radioactive accumulation of previously injected isotopes to detect thyroid nodules or tumors
thyroid-stimulating hormone
stimulates secretions from throid gland
excision of the thyroid gland
triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4)
known as the thyroid hormones; regulate metabolism
type 1 diabetes
diabetes in which no beta-cell production of insulin occurs and the patient is dependent on insulin for survival
type 2 diabetes
diabetes in which either the body produces insufficient insulin or insulin resistance (a defective use of the insulin that is produced) occurs; the patient usually is not dependent on insulin for survival
urine sugar and ketone studies
chemical tests to determine the presence of sugar or ketone bodies in urine; used as a screen for diabetes

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