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psych dale ch. 12


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Genetics do influence anorexia/bulimia. T or F
What was wrong with Alfred Kinsey's study?
His nonrandom sample contained an overrepresentation of well-educated white urbanites.
Incentive Theory
Like we are pushed by internal needs to reduce drives, we are also pulled by incentives
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
When the original instinct theory of motivation collapsed, it was replaced by _____/
drive-motivation theory
drive-motivation theory
the idea that a physlogical need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
With a few exceptions, when a physiological need increases, so does a ______.
psychological drive
A tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
pushed by "need" to reduce drive and pulled by ___
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
A need or desire (internal) that energizes and directs behavior (external)
Why did Instinct Theory fail to explain human motives?
Used instinct to name behaviors, not to explain them.
Optmial Arousal Theory
Even when our biological needs have been met, we feel drive to experienec stimulation (i.e. curiosity). Too little stimulation = boredom, too much = stress
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
1. Physiological (hunger&thirst) 2. Safety (Want predictable & organized world, secure, safe, stable) 3. Belongingness (love and be loved, be accepted, avoid loneliness) 4. Esteem (need self-esteem, achievment, recognition, respect) 5. Self-actualization
Brain monitors blood glucose in _____. When blood glucose is low, people become _____.
hypothalamus; hungry. Food raises glucose and reduces hunger and eating.
Lateral vs. Ventromedial hypothalamus
Lateral: increases hunger ; Ventromedial: reduces hunger
What did Ancel Key's study show?
When volunteer's food intake was cut in half, they had less energy and became obsessed with food. They also lost interest in sex and social activities.
Have humans with ulcerated or cancerous stomachs still felt hunger? Can one feel hunger even on a full stomach?
Nutrients are not absorbed fully until ____ after a meal stops. Injecting food into stomatch ____ hunger. Removing food from stomach _____ hunger. Water can ____ hunger.
one hour; stops; restores; reduce
Hunger also changes with:
Change in food type & change in exercise
Increases in the insulin hormone ____ blood glucose, partly by converting it to stored fat.
What happens if you destory the lateral hypothalamus? Ventromedial hypothalamus?
Destroy lateral and there will be absolutely no interest in food. Destroy ventromedial and the animal's stomach and intestines will process food more rapdily, causing it to eat more often and get very fat.
A digestive hormone that suppresses appetite
A hunger-arousing hormone released by an empty stomach
Set Point
The point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set, and the body will likes to always be at that set point. When body falls below weight, hunger increases and metabolic rate decreases - helps restore lost weight.
Basal Metabolic Rate
Body's base rate of energy expenditure in maintaining basic body functions when the body is at rest
Hormone released by pancreas; controls blood glucose
Protein released by fat cells; when there is a lot, it causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger
Hunger-triggering hormone released by hypothalamus
Genetic factors do/do not play a large role in body weight
Bulimia Nervosa is ___ as common as anorexia
twice. And very dangerous, 5-8% die
Unlike anorexia, bulimia is marked by ____
weight fluctuations within or above normal rangers, making the condition easy to hide.
Families of bulimic patients & anorexic patients
Bulimic: high instances of alcoholism, obesity, and depression in family. Anorexia: competitive, high-achieving, and protective family
Like hunger, it is a physiologically based motive, but it is affected more so by learning and your own personal values
Sexual motivation is natures way of ___
making people reproduce, therefore ensuring the survival of our species
Sexual arousal depends on ___
the interplay of internal and external stimuli.
The 4 stages of the Sexual Response Cycle (similar to both men and women)
Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
Excitement (SRC)
Genital area becomes engorged with blood, causing the beginning of an erection for men and swelling of the clitoris, vagina opening up, and the secretion of a lubricant for women
Plateau (SRC)
Excitement peaks as breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates continue to increase. Penis is fully erect. Female's vaginal secretion is continuing. woman's clitoris begins to retract and orgasm is fast-approaching
Orgasm (SRC)
The whole body is now experiencin muscle contractions as well as further increase in breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates. Gential contractions create a feeling of sexual release - same for males and females.
Resolution (SRC)
Body gradually returns to an un-aroused stage. The genitals blood vessels release blood quickly if an orgasm was achieved but slowly if not.
In the SRC, men's resolution will ____ after orgasm. Women's resolution will ______ with orgasm, and ____ without orgasm.
decrease rapidly; decrease rapidly; decrease slowly
Refractory Period
The resting period after an orgasm during which a man cannot reach another orgasm, but a girl can more easily and within a shorter amount of time. Lasts up to a day.
Sexual Disorders
Problems that consistently impair sexual arousal and functioning
Hormones have two effects in sexual behavior:
1. Direct the development of male and female sex characteristics 2. Activate sexual behavior
A sex hormone, released in larger amounts by females than males. In other female animal species, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, therefore promoting sexual receptivity
The most important of the male sex hormones. Surges and pubery and during adolescence. Maintains sex drive in adult males. Castration (losing testes) decreases sex drive, testosterone injections increase it.
Sexual motivation arises from the interplay of our ____ and ____, although our ____ (______) also plays a role in our sexual arousal and desire
environment and our physiology; imagination (the stimuli in our heads)
Peopel with spinal chord injuries who experience no sensation in their genital area ____
still feel sexual desire
Genital arousal coincides with ______ of dreams, even when sexual content is not evident. Dreams may even sometimes lead to an orgasm.
all types
Birthrate among married women is ____ and birthrate of unmarried women ______
decreasing; doubled
What motivates teens to have sex and why aren't they using contraceptives?
Ignorance (mistaken ideas about sex), guilt (hesitant to carry protection), not enough communication regarding birth control, and alcohol use
Homosexuality is not linked with:
problems in the past with parents, fear/hatred of other sex, level of sex hormones in blood, and if they were molested by an adult homosexual when they were kids
Ray Blanchard's "Fraternal Birth Order Effect"
Men with older brothers have a high percentage of being homosexual, with first son = 3%, second son = 4%, third son 5% and so on.
Female sheep will show homosexual behavior if pregnant mothers are injected with ____ during a critical gestation period
Who said that we are the "social animal"?
Achievement motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
Intrinsic motivation
A desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective
Extrinsic motivation
A desire to perofrm a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
Industrial/organizational psychology
A subfield of psych that studies and advises on workplace behavior. These psychologists help organizations select and train employees, boost morale and productivity, and design products and assess responses to them.
Task leadership
Goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
Social leadership
Group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
Theory X
Assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money and, thus, should be directed from above
Theory Y
Assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity

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