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psych ch. 12


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A need or desire (internal) that energizes and directs behavior (external)
A fixed pattern of behavior that is not learned and universal in a species
Instinct theory
Evolutionary perspective, say that someone is who they are because of how they were born
Why did Instinct Theory fail to explain human motives?
Used instinct to name behaviors, not to explain them.
Evolutionary Theories
Natural selection favors behaviors that maximize survival and reproduction success
Drive-Reduction Theory
The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
When a physiological need increases, so does _____ (with a few exceptions)
Psychological drive - an aroused, motivated state
The physiological aim to reduce drive - to maintain at a steady internal state. (i.e. blood glucose levels, body temperature)
Incentive Theory
Like we are pushed by internal needs to reduce drives, we are also pulled by incentives
A positive or negative external stimuli that motivates our behavior
Optimal Arousal Theory
Even when our biological needs have been met, we feel drive to experienec stimulation (i.e. curiosity). Too little stimulation = boredom, too much = stress
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs:
1. Physiological (hunger&thirst) 2. Safety (Want predictable & organized world, secure, safe, stable) 3. Belongingness (love and be loved, be accepted, avoid loneliness) 4. Esteem (need self-esteem, achievment, recognition, respect) 5. Self-actualization
Brain monitors blood glucose in _____. When blood glucose is low, people become _____.
hypothalamus; hungry. Food raises glucose and reduces hunger and eating.
Lateral vs. Ventromedial hypothalamus
Lateral: increases hunger ; Ventromedial: reduces hunger
What did Ancel Key's study show?
When volunteer's food intake was cut in half, they had less energy and became obsessed with food. They also lost interest in sex and social activities.
Have humans with ulcerated or cancerous stomachs still felt hunger? Can one feel hunger even on a full stomach?
Nutrients are not absorbed fully until ____ after a meal stops. Injecting food into stomatch ____ hunger. Removing food from stomach _____ hunger. Water can ____ hunger.
one hour; stops; restores; reduce
Hunger also changes with:
Change in food type & change in exercise
Increases in the insulin hormone ____ blood glucose, partly by converting it to stored fat.
What happens if you destory the lateral hypothalamus? Ventromedial hypothalamus?
Destroy lateral and there will be absolutely no interest in food. Destroy ventromedial and the animal's stomach and intestines will process food more rapdily, causing it to eat more often and get very fat.
A digestive hormone that suppresses appetite
A hunger-arousing hormone released by an empty stomach
Set Point
The point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set, and the body will likes to always be at that set point. When body falls below weight, hunger increases and metabolic rate decreases - helps restore lost weight.
Basal Metabolic Rate
Body's base rate of energy expenditure in maintaining basic body functions when the body is at rest
Hormone released by pancreas; controls blood glucose
Protein released by fat cells; when there is a lot, it causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger
Hunger-triggering hormone released by hypothalamus
Genetic factors do/do not play a large role in body weight
Bulimia Nervosa is ___ as common as anorexia
twice. And very dangerous, 5-8% die
Unlike anorexia, bulimia is marked by ____
weight fluctuations within or above normal rangers, making the condition easy to hide.
Families of bulimic patients & anorexic patients
Bulimic: high instances of alcoholism, obesity, and depression in family. Anorexia: competitive, high-achieving, and protective family
Genetics do influence anorexia/bulimia. T or F
What was wrong with Alfred Kinsey's study?
His nonrandom sample contained an overrepresentation of well-educated white urbanites.
Sexual motivation is natures way of ___
making people reproduce, therefore ensuring the survival of our species
Sexual arousal depends on ___
the interplay of internal and external stimuli.
The 4 stages of the Sexual Response Cycle (similar to both men and women)
Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
Excitement (SRC)
Genital area becomes engorged with blood, causing the beginning of an erection for men and swelling of the clitoris, vagina opening up, and the secretion of a lubricant for women
Plateau (SRC)
Excitement peaks as breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates continue to increase. Penis is fully erect. Female's vaginal secretion is continuing. woman's clitoris begins to retract and orgasm is fast-approaching
Orgasm (SRC)
The whole body is now experiencin muscle contractions as well as further increase in breathing, pulse, and blood pressure rates. Gential contractions create a feeling of sexual release - same for males and females.
Resolution (SRC)
Body gradually returns to an un-aroused stage. The genitals blood vessels release blood quickly if an orgasm was achieved but slowly if not.
In the SRC, men's resolution will ____ after orgasm. Women's resolution will ______ with orgasm, and ____ without orgasm.
decrease rapidly; decrease rapidly; decrease slowly
Refractory Period
The resting period after an orgasm during which a man cannot reach another orgasm, but a girl can more easily and within a shorter amount of time. Lasts up to a day.
Sexual Disorders
Problems that consistently impair sexual arousal and functioning
Hormones have two effects in sexual behavior:
1. Direct the development of male and female sex characteristics 2. Activate sexual behavior
A sex hormone, released in larger amounts by females than males. In other female animal species, estrogen levels peak during ovulation, therefore promoting sexual receptivity
The most important of the male sex hormones. Surges and pubery and during adolescence. Maintains sex drive in adult males. Castration (losing testes) decreases sex drive, testosterone injections increase it.
Sexual motivation arises from the interplay of our ____ and ____, although our ____ (______) also plays a role in our sexual arousal and desire
environment and our physiology; imagination (the stimuli in our heads)
Peopel with spinal chord injuries who experience no sensation in their genital area ____
still feel sexual desire
Genital arousal coincides with ______ of dreams, even when sexual content is not evident. Dreams may even sometimes lead to an orgasm.
all types
Birthrate among married women is ____ and birthrate of unmarried women ______
decreasing; doubled
What motivates teens to have sex and why aren't they using contraceptives?
Ignorance (mistaken ideas about sex), guilt (hesitant to carry protection), not enough communication regarding birth control, and alcohol use
Homosexuality is not linked with:
problems in the past with parents, fear/hatred of other sex, level of sex hormones in blood, and if they were molested by an adult homosexual when they were kids
Ray Blanchard's "Fraternal Birth Order Effect"
Men with older brothers have a high percentage of being homosexual, with first son = 3%, second son = 4%, third son 5% and so on.
Female sheep will show homosexual behavior if pregnant mothers are injected with ____ during a critical gestation period
Who said that we are the "social animal"?
The feeling of being pulled in two or more directions by opposing motives. Frusterating and stressful.
4 types of conflicts:
Approach-approach, Approach-avoidance, Avoidance-avoidance, and Mulitple approach-avoidance
Approach-Approach Conflict
The least stressful. Each of two goals is desirable and within reach. i.e. 2 good choices, choose between bmw or mercedes
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
Person is motivated to avoid each of two negative goals. Avoiding one of them requires approaching the other. Not choosing may be impossible or undesirable. 2 bad choices
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
The same goal produces both approach and avoidance motives. 1 choice, 1 positive and 1 negative outcomes. (i.e. Eat ice cream: it's yummy but it makes you fat)
Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflict
Each of several alternative courses of action has plushes and minuses.
Expectancies refer to:
beliefs about how we will do if we engage in a certain behavior. If we expect to do well, it'll be more likely to engage in that behavior. If we think the chance of succeeding is low, then we're less likely to be involved.
Vroom suggests that the motivation to work depends on the relationships between 3 factors:
Expectancy (a person's belief that working hard = desired level of task performance), Instrumentality (successful task performance will be followed by rewards), and Valence (value a person assigns to possible awards).
The (simplified) equation for the Expectancy Theory:
motivation = expectancy x value
Cognitive x value theory
Goal-directed behavior is motivated by two cognitive judgements: strength of guy's expectation that it will lead to success & amount that guy believes performace will be rewarded

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