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What does the science of nutrition study?
-the interactions that occur between living organisms and food
What is an essential nutrient?
-must be added to the diet because body does not make it
Six classes of nutrients and which provide energy?
-Carbohydrate, lipids, and proteins provide energy -water, vitamins and minerals
Three functions provided by nutrients
-providing energy: carbs, lipid, proteins -forming structures: protein, minerals -regulating body processes: proteins, lipid, carb, water, vitamins, minerals
Three ways in which what you eat today can affect your health
-malnutrition: energy or nutrient intake below or above suggested -undernutrition -overnutrition
Three factors (other than biological need) that influence what we eat.
-availability -cultural and family background -social acceptability -personal preference -psychological and emotional
Why is it important to choose a variety of food?
-ensures an adequate nutrient intake bc not one food can provide all of it -interactions between different foods and nutrients -avoids excess of natural toxins or residues
How does moderation help maintain a healthy weight?
-not consuming too much energy, fat, sugar, salt, alcholoc -watching portions and passing up super sizes -easier to valance your diet and allow a greter variety of food
Steps of Scientific Method
1) Observation and ask questions 2) Propose a hypothesis 3)Design Experiments-- if results do not prove hypothesis wrong, theory can be established
What is a control group?
-group of participants in an experiments that is identical to the experimental group except that not experimental treatement is used -used as basis of comparison
What is a placebo?
-fake medicine or supplement that is indistinguishable in appearance from real thing -used to disguise the control and experimental groups in experiment
What is a double-blind study?
-an experiment in which neither the study participants nr the researchers know who is in a control or an experimental group
What type of information can be obtained using epidemiology?
(study of interrelationships between health and disease in different populations) -identifies patterns in disease NOT CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS
What factors should be considered when judging nutrition claims?
-whether he info makes sense -came from reliable source -study was well done and accurately interpreted -who stands to benefit from claim -stood the test of time
Chapter Two Review Questions
What is the smallest unit of plant and animal life?
Three organ systems involved in the digestions and absorption of food
-gastrointestinal tract (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small/large intestine, anus) -aided by secretion of mucus and enyzmes -regulated by nervous and hormonal signals
How do teeth function in digestion?
-breaks food into smaller pieces
What is the peristalsis?
-coordinated muscular contractions that move food through the GI tracts
What is segmentation?
-rhythmic local constrictions of intestines that mix food with digestive juices and speed absorption by moving food mass over intestinal wall
List two functions of the stomach
1) acts as temporary storage tank for food 2) mix food into semiliquid mass (chyme) and gastric juices begins protein digestion
How is the movement of material through the digestive tract regulated?
-stomach emptying regulated by amount and composition of food consumed and by nervous and hormonal signals from teh stomach and small intestine
List three mechanisms by which nutrients are absorbed.
-small intestine -bile from gallbladder -secretions from pancrease and liver are regulated by hormones secretin and CCK
Where does most absorption occur?
small intestine
How does the structure of the small intestine aid absorption?
-biocarbonate from the pancrease neutralizes stomach acid, and pancreatic and intestinal enzynmes digest cab, fat and protein
What products of digestion are transported by the lymphatic system?
triglycerides and fat-soluble vitamins
What happens to material not absorbed in the small intestine?
pass to the large intestine, some water and nutrients are absorbed
How do the lungs and kidneys help eliminate metabolic waste products?
waste products of metabolism are excreted by them
What foods are good sources of unrefined carbohydrates?
whole grains, fruits, veggies
What is the basic unit of carbohydrate?
contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Simple Carbs vs. Complex Carbs
Simple: mono and disaccharides found in table sugar, honey, milk and fruit Complex: oligosaccharides, fiber, polysaccharides like glycogen (animals) and starch and fibers(plants)
How much energy is provided by a gram of carbohydrates?
4 kcals
How does fiber affect gastrointestinal health?
makes stool softer and larger which reduces pressure needed to move material
Name two functions of fat in foods
add kcalories, texture, and flavor
What is a lipid?
organic compounds, dont dissolve in water -trigylcerides (most common)
Saturated fat vs. monounsaturated fat vs polyunsatruated fat
-SAT saturated with hydrogen atoms -UNSAT. contain carbon-carbon double bonds a)mono- 1 double bond b)poly-more than one double bond i.e. olive oil
Hydrogenating something makes what kind of fat?
How do HDLs differ from LDLs?
HDL- made by liver, S.I. remove cholesterol from cells and transport it to liver (protects against heart disease) LDL-bring cholesterol to tissues (increase risk of heart disease) VLDL- synthesized by liver
Secondary Structure
Folding of a protein because of weak bonds that form between elements of the amino acid backbone (Not R-groups)
Tertiary Structure
Folding of a polypeptide chain because of interactions among the R-grougs of the amino acids
Quaternary Structure
the combining of polypeptide chains with other polypeptide chains in a protein
Messenger Ribonucleic Acid (mRNA)
A form of RNA involved in gene transcription
Transfer Ribonucleic Acid (tRNA)
A form of RNA in the cytoplasm involved in gene translation
An organelle associated with the endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm, involved in gene translation
The process by which mRNA is made using DNA as a template
The process by which amino acids are linked together via peptide bonds on ribosomes, using mRNA and tRNA
The transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to another organic compound to form a different amino acid
Synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources
A form of PEM characterized by extreme wasting of muscle and adipose tissue
A form of PEM often characterized by edema in the extremities (hands and feet)
A relatively nontoxic, nitrogen-containing compound that is produced from ammonia
A person who does not consume any or selected foods and beverages made from animal products
A type of vegetarian who consumes no animal products
A type of vegetarian who consumes dairy products (but not eggs) in an otherwise plant-based diet
A type of vegetarian who consumes dairy products and eggs in an otherwise plant-based diet

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