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psych ch. 7


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Alcohol is a depressant/stimulant
Alpha waves
Relatively slow brainwaves of a relaxed, awake state
Drugs that stimulate neural activity; cause speeded-up body functions and associate energy and mood changes;
Annual Cycles (Biological rhythms)
Ex: geese migrate, grizzly bears hibernate, etc. Some people have seasonal affective disorder, which is when they're depressed during winter's dark months (esp in far nothern regions)
Barbiturate drugs
Drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system; reduces anxiety but impairs memory and judgment (tranquilizers); mimic the effects of alcohol; can cause death in big doses
Biological rhythms
Time periods our body fluctuates to; controlled by internal "biological clocks"
Can hypnosis force people to act against their will?
Circadian rhythm
The biological clock; regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hr cycle
Compared with older adults, young adults spend ___ time daydreaming and admit to ____ sexual fantasies.
more; more
Focused and directed thinking, like directed consciousness, but involved fantasies (and not stimuli immediately at hand)
Defintion of sleep:
periodic, natural, reversible loss of consciousness; a state that we do not know we are in until we leave it
"downers", Calm neural activity and slow body functions
Directed consciousness:
A focused and orderly "one tracked" awareness; centered on a specific stimuli/one thing
a split between different levels of consciousness; allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others (ex: hypnosis dissociates the pain stimulus of ice cold water from the emotional suffering)
Divided-consciousness theory
hypnosis has caused a split in awareness for the subjects and the subjects are actually hypnotized
Does alcohol suppress REM sleep?
Dream sleep
Emergent sleep: the brain beginning to move faster, returns to beta wave pattern of wakefulness though you're alseep. B - A - T - D
Believe that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact; mind can exist separate from body; "death is a person's liberation from the body"
street name for MDMA. Both a stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Triggers release of dopamine. Immediate effect: dehydration and risk of severe overheating, blood pressure increase, and death. Long-term effect: reduced serotonin and increased risk of depress
Evidence of the importance of sleep:
Number of car accidents increase if you sleep less and vice versa (less accients in the fall because you get more sleep than in spring)
Flowing consciousness:
A drifting, unfocused awareness; your attention moves at random from one thing to another
For most psychologists today, consciousness is:
our awareness of ourselves and our environment
sensory expeiriences that occur without a sensory stimulus
Distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absense of sensory input; makes up fake images
hidden observer
Hilgard's term describig a hypnotized subject aware of experiences (i.e. pain or sounds) but they aren't aware of it while they're under hypnosis
How can you alter your state of consciousness?
Meditation, Hypnosis, Drugs
A social interction where the hypnotists suggest to the subject that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur
Difficulty falling or staying asleep or you wake up easily. Affects about 20 million Americans.
Latent content
The true unconscious meaning of the dream
powerful hallucinogenic drug; also known as acid
Manifest Content
(Freud) the surface content of a dream, which contains dream symbols that distort and disguise the dream's true meaning
mild hallucinogen; disrupts memory and causes lung damage from smoke
Men fantasize about sex more often. True or false?
Believe that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing; the mind is what the brain does; without bodies we are nobodies
A form of epilspesy that causes sudden, immediate sleeping. The more stressed you are, the easier you'll fall asleep. Usually lasts less than 5 minutes.
Near-death experience
An altered state of consciousness reported afer a close brush with death; often similar to drug-induced hallucinogens (maybe because of oxygen deprivation)
Night Terros
Very frightening dreams that are typically in children (where they scream out in the night) and more severe than nightmares. Starts in stage 4. Outgrown as child gets older.
Frightening dreams that typically involve anxieties; dark & foreboding. Starts in REM sleep
Ninety-minute cycles (Biological rhythms)
We cycle through various stages of sleep
Opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin); depress neural activity, temporarily lessen pain and anxiety; user becomes lethargic; breathing slows; feel happy
Our body temperatures rises in the _____, peaks during the ___, and decreases in the ____.
morning, day, early afternoon
People who do more crimes or do drugs more have more/less vivid fantasies
People who drank the night before can't remember:
what they said or the names of the people they talked to on the next day
Physical dependence
A physiological need for a drug (ex: physical pain and intense cravings)
Posthypnotic amnesia
A temporary memory loss; you can't remember what you experienced during hypnosis; done by the hypnotist
Posthypnotic suggestion
A suggestion made during a hypnosis, that is carried out afterr the sbuject is no longer hypnotized. Used to some clinicians to help control unwanted symptoms and behaviors.
Psychoactive drugs
chemicals that change perceptions and moods
Psychological dependence
A psychological need for a drug
REM (rapid eye movement) stage
Present when we're dreaming. After the 4 stages. Also known as paradoxical sleep (bc muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active).
Sleep Apnea
Cessation of breathing while sleeping; not getting enough oxygen. Snoring very loudly. Deprives the person of slow-wave sleep. The more obese you are, the more likely you will to have it.
sleep spindles
bursts of rapid, rhythmic brain-wave activity
Sleepwalking and Sleeptalking
Runs in families. Typically at stage 4. 15% of people.
slow-wave sleep
Stages 3 and 4 of sleep
Stage 2 of sleep:
Alpha to theta (mostly alpha) brain wave patterns; the brain is slowing futher; periodic appearances of sleep spindles; can be awakened easily;
Stage 3 of sleep:
Theta to delta (mostly theta) brain wave patterns; the brain is slowing further; transitional to deep sleep of stage 4. Delta waves increase as you move on to stage 4.
Stage 4 of sleep:
Delta wave brain patterns; brain at its slowest. Hardest to awaken here (and at three). At end when kids may wet bed or sleepwalk
Stage one of sleep:
Switching from beta to alpha (mostly beta) wave brain activity patterns; the brain and breathing is slowing down; lasts up to five minutes; may experience hallucinations
"uppers", Temporarily excite neural activity and arouse body functions
Stimulants inclue:
caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine, ectasy
Supporters of the social influence theory believe that
hypnosis is an extension of everyday social behavior and that hypnotic subjects are so caught up in the hypnotized role that she ignores the oder
The reoccuring sleep cycle moves from beta-alpha-theta-delta-beta in the course of about _____
1.5 hours
The sleep cycle repeats itself about every __ minutes. As the night wears on, stage 4 gets increasingly shorter and then disappears and REM gets longer. ____% of our average night's sleep has been REM sleep
The Unconscious Mind:
The notion of an unconscious mind helps to explain mental processes that occur without conscious awareness (you forget something and remember hours later)
The diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requires user to take larger doses each time, neuroadaptation (brain's counteracting the disruption to its normal functioning)
True or false: artifical light delays sleep.
True or false: Hypnosis enables peopel to recover accurate memories as far back as birth
false (age regression)
True or false: sleeping pills and alcohol can help insomnia
Twenty-eight-day cycles (Biological rhythms)
A female's menstrual cycle averages 28 days; many psychologists think it causes mood changes, others don't.
Twenty-four-hour cycles (Biological rhythms)
Humans go through 24 hour cycles of varying and falling alertness, body temperature, and growth hormone secretion.
What are the 3 categories of psychoactive drugs?
Depressants, Stimulants, Hallucinogens
What are the 3 types of waking consciousness?
Directed consciousness, flowing consciousness, and daydreaming
When you dream, what stage are you in?
Beta stage (first)
Which part of sleep is the most important?
REM (key reason why we sleep)
The disomfort and distress that follows discontinuing the drug
Women dream of males and females equally often, whereas __% of the characters is men's dreams are males.

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