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Bio Exam3


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Metabolic Pathway
Begins with a specific molecule which is altered in a series of defined steps resulting in a certain product.
Catabolic Pathway
Release energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler molecules. e.g. cellular respiration.
Cellular Respiration 
glucose and other organic fuels are broken down to provide energy for the cell.
Anabolic Pathways

Metabolic pathway that consumes energy to build more complex molecules from simpler molecules.

e.g. the synthesis of proteins from amino acids. 

Biosynthetic Pathways
Same as anabolic pathways.
The study of how organisms manage their energy resources.
Capacity to cause change.
Kinetic Energy     
Energy associated with movement.
Heat/Thermal Energy
energy associated with the movement of molecules
Potential Energy
Energy matter possesses due to its location.
Chemical Energy
potential energy available for release in chemical reactions.
Name the four types of energy.





The study of energy transformation
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy can be transfered of transformed but it cannot be created or destroyed.
Conservation of Energy  
Same as first law of thermodynamics. Energy is not created or destroyed.
Name two types of metabolic pathways

Catabolic - downhill

Anabolic - uphill 

A measure of disorder
The Second Law of Thermodynamics  
Every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe.
Spontaneous Process  
One that can occur without an input of energy. It will increase the entropy of the universe.
Nonspontaneous Process
A process that requires an input of energy.
J Willard Gibbs  
Came up with Gibbs free energy function
Free Energy

Measures the portion of a system's energy that can perform work when the temperature and pressure are uniform through out the system.

dG = dH -TdS 

The more free energy a system has the less stable it is. 

- dG
A spontaneous process
+ dG or dG = 0
A non-spontaneous process.

 = dH - TdS


G(final state) - G(initial state) 

A state of maximum stability.
Exergonic Reaction  

proceeds with a net release of free energy


Endergonic Reaction  

A reaction that absorbs free energy from its surroundings.


List the three types of work a cell does.

Mechanical Work.

Transport Work.

Chemical Work. 


adenosine triphosphate

Contains ribose, the nitrogenous base adenine and a chain of three phosphate groups. 

Hydrolysis of ATP
H2O breaks off a phosphate branch releasing energy.
Phosphorylated Intermediate
The result of enzymes coupling the phosphate group released by the hydrolysis of ATP to  a molecule in order to begin a endergonic process.
A catalytic protein, used to speed up reactions by lowering their activation energy.
Activation Energy
Energy required to start a downhill process.
Reactant an enzyme works on.
Active Site
Small portion of a protein that binds to the molecules it acts on. This allows it to identify certain molecules.
Induced Fit
interactions between the protein and the molecule it acts on causes the active site to latch onto the substrate. 
List how enzymes speed up a reaction

1. Orient he molecule

2.Stabilize the transition state

3.Provide a favorable microenvironment

4.Participate in catalytic reaction. 

Saturated Enzyme
Condition when there is enough substrate that the enzyme molecules do not have to wait between molecules of substrate. Operating at maximum capacity.
Optimal Temperature

Temperature that provides the highest enzyme reaction rate without denaturing the protein.

35-40C in humans. 

Optimal pH

pH that provides the highest enzyme reaction rate without denaturing the protein.

6-8 in humans.

Atoms or molecules that help in catalytic activity.
Organic Molecules that help in catalytic activity.
Enzyme Inhibitors

Chemicals that inhibit that action of certain enzymes.


Name the two types of enzyme inhibitors.

Competitive Inhibitors.

Noncompetitive Inhibitors. 

Competitive Inhibitors.
Enzyme inhibitors that compete with the substrate for active sites which reduces the productivity of the enzyme.
Non-Competitive Inhibitors
Inhibitors that bind to the protein somewhere other than the active site causing it to change shape.
Allosteric Regulation
when regulatory molecules affect how an enzyme functions by binding somewhere other than its active site. Can inhibit or stimulate.
When a regulatory molecule binds to the active site of one subunit of an enzyme the induced fit changes the shape of the active site on the other subunit.
Feedback regulation

the product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor.

e.g. Isoleucine 

A catabolic process in sugars are partially degraded without the use of oxygen.
Cellular Respiration
A process in which organic compounds plus oxygen yeild CO2 water and energy.
The loss of electrons
A gain of electrons. Reduces the amount of positive charge.
Reducing Agent
Substance that donates electrons.
Oxidizing Agent
Substance that accepts electrons.
An oxidizing agent in cellular respiration. It accepts two electrons and a proton to form NADH.
What are the three stages of cellular respiration?

1. Glycolysis

2. The citric acid cycle

3. Oxidative phosphorylation 


The process by which glucose is broken down giving

2 pyruvate + 2 H2O, 2NADH + 2H+ and a net gain of 2ATP

it requires 2 atp to initiate the process. 

List the ten steps of glycolysis

1. glucose is phosphorylated

2. its converted to frutcose

3. its phosphorylated again

4. its cleaved into two three carbon sugars

5. its converted to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate

6.its oxidized by Nad and phosphorylated

List the three steps in the formation of acetyl CoA

1.  CO2 is lost

2. an acetate is formed along with NADH

3. coenzyme A attackes to the acetate


Krebs Cylce
Same as citric acid cycle
Describe the 8 steps of the citric acid cycle

1. acetyl CoA adds to oxaloacetate to form citrate

2.  converted to isocitrate

3. loses CO2 and is oxidized forming a NADH

4. same as 3 but it is attached to CoA at the end

5. CoA is displaced by a phosphate group and ATP i

green pigment located in chloroplasts
tissue in the interior of a leaf that contains chloroplasts
microscopic pores that allow gas transport
Formula for photosynthesis
6CO2 + 12H2O + light Energy -> C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O
The two processes that make up photosynthesis are?
Thw light reactions and the calvin cycle.
Action Spectrum
profile of the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of light in photosynthesis.
hrydrocarbons that extend the wavelengths used for photosythesis. Also prevent phlorophyll from being damaged.
reaction center surrounded by light harvesting complexes.
tiny filaments that make up the body of yeast
replaces celulose in the cell wall
mass made of hyphae
special hyphae that allow fungi to penetrate the tissue of their host
mutually beneficial relationship between fungi and plant roots

oldest fungi


molds on produce
parasites classified as zygomycetes
have sac-like sexual spores

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